Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 03-2023
Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 03-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
- Lượng khí thải cao có thể làm tăng nguy cơ hạn hán ngô trong tương lai ở Trung Quốc lên 60–70 %
- Sự khác biệt về giới tính trong việc thích ứng với nhiệt độ ở Tây Ban Nha (1983–2018)
- Vi nhựa: Sự xuất hiện, phương pháp xử lý, quy định và tác động môi trường dự kiến
- Các chất chuyển hóa phthalate trong nước tiểu và thiếu máu: Kết quả từ Khảo sát Sức khỏe Môi trường Quốc gia Hàn Quốc (2015–2017)
- Khung quản lý năng lượng tổng quát cho phương tiện xây dựng lai thông qua học tăng cường dựa trên mô hình
- Lợi ích kinh tế và môi trường của việc tích hợp giữa hấp thụ carbon và lưu trữ khí dưới lòng đất
- Phân tích lượng khí thải carbon và lượng khí thải carbon trong vòng đời của quy trình khí hóa plasma bùn đô thị
- Quản lý mùi và vị sinh học: Từ nguồn nước, thông qua quy trình xử lý và hệ thống phân phối, đến người tiêu dùng
- Đóng góp của oxit nitơ vào lượng khí thải carbon của các nhà máy xử lý nước thải quy mô lớn và các chiến lược giảm thiểu- một đánh giá quan trọng
Về môi trường đô thị
- Phản ứng của các mối quan hệ không gian giữa các dịch vụ hệ sinh thái và các Mục tiêu Phát triển Bền vững đối với đô thị hóa
- Ô nhiễm không khí liên quan đến giao thông và quá trình methyl hóa DNA trên toàn bộ gen: Một thử nghiệm chéo, ngẫu nhiên
- Mối liên hệ giữa nhiệt độ và tỷ lệ tử vong tự nhiên ở Bỉ: Hiệu ứng thay đổi theo đặc điểm cá nhân và môi trường dân cư
- Đánh giá đồng tác động đối với chất lượng không khí khu vực: Góc nhìn của các chính sách và biện pháp có tiềm năng giảm thiểu khí nhà kính
- Ảnh hưởng của quá trình xử lý kết tủa canxi cacbonat do vi sinh vật gây ra đối với quá trình hóa rắn và ổn định của tro bay đốt chất thải rắn đô thị (MSWI FA) - Vật liệu gốc kết hợp với metakaolin
- Trích xuất các tính năng đa tỷ lệ giúp tăng cường dự báo PM2.5 hàng ngày dựa trên học tập sâu ở các thành phố
- Làm sáng tỏ mối quan hệ giữa phổ huỳnh quang, phân bố trọng lượng phân tử và tỷ lệ kỵ nước của chất hữu cơ hòa tan trong nước thải đô thị
- Ý nghĩa sức khỏe, phân phối và phân bổ nguồn kim loại nặng trong bụi lắng đọng trên đường ở Thành phố Jammu ở miền bắc Ấn Độ
- Cây ven đô thị: Hình thái đô thị và khí tượng thúc đẩy sự lắng đọng carbon nguyên tố vào tán cây và đất
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Tiềm năng sử dụng nước thải công nghiệp chứa vitamin C trong nông nghiệp: Độ màu mỡ của đất và thành phần cộng đồng vi khuẩn
- Thiết kế nghiên cứu sàng lọc đánh giá nhanh sự tích tụ sinh học (RABS) đối với các chất per-và polyfluoroalkyl mới xuất hiện ở chuột tiếp xúc với nước bề mặt bị ảnh hưởng bởi công nghiệp
- Nanocompozit NiO/ZnO hoạt tính cao dùng xúc tác quang loại bỏ thuốc nhuộm azo
- Loại bỏ thuốc nhuộm độc hại khỏi nước thải chứa thuốc nhuộm bằng vật liệu nanocompozit mới: Cơ chế đẳng nhiệt, động học và hấp phụ
- Một màng thẩm thấu thuận dựa trên carbon dẫn điện mới để xử lý nước thải nhuộm
- Một đánh giá kiểm duyệt về vai trò của chất thải sợi lignocellulose tự nhiên như một chất hấp phụ chi phí thấp để loại bỏ các chất ô nhiễm công nghiệp dệt may khác nhau
- Chứng nhận ISO 14001 và khử cacbon công nghiệp: Một nghiên cứu thực nghiệm
- Các thảm họa công nghiệp địa phương trước đây và sự tham gia của các tổ chức phi chính phủ khuyến khích sự tham gia của công chúng vào Đánh giá tác động môi trường xuyên biên giới
- Nhận thức của ngành và quan điểm của cộng đồng về việc thúc đẩy nền kinh tế hydro ở Úc
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. High emissions could increase the future risk of maize drought in China by 60–70 %
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 852, 15 December 2022, 158474
Drought events have considerable direct and indirect economic, environmental, and social impacts, but few studies have analyzed and assessed future changes in drought disasters from a risk perspective to guide responses and adaptations thoroughly. Studying the potential climate-related impacts on future crop yield is therefore urgently needed. Intercomparison of the three Shared Socio-economic Pathway (SSP) scenarios based drought risks and yield loss of China was carried out using the climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), and the hotspots of high drought risk regions were identified. This study found that the areas affected by severe maize drought (loss ratio larger than 0.2) accounted for 16.13 %, 20.79 %, and 18.87 % of the total national corn areas under three low, medium-to-high and high emission scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP3-7.0, SSP5-8.5) respectively. The northwest China maize region, the ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry, and the western central northern China maize region have relatively high loss risk. Compared with SSP1-2.6, the yield loss rates increased with 70.73 % and 61.52 % of national corn areas for SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5, respectively. There is a decrease in the areas with low-risk and a significant increase in the areas with high-risk for SSP3-7.0 and SSP5-8.5 compared to the SSP1-2.6. These results may provide theoretical support for agricultural drought risk reduction and adaptation planning to ensure food security under climate change.
2. Gender differences in adaptation to heat in Spain (1983–2018)
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 1, December 2022, 113986
In Spain the average temperature has increased by 1.7 °C since pre-industrial times. There has been an increase in heat waves both in terms of frequency and intensity, with a clear impact in terms of population health. The effect of heat waves on daily mortality presents important territorial differences. Gender also affects these impacts, as a determinant that conditions social inequalities in health. There is evidence that women may be more susceptible to extreme heat than men, although there are relatively few studies that analyze differences in the vulnerability and adaptation to heat by sex. This could be related to physiological causes. On the other hand, one of the indicators used to measure vulnerability to heat in a population and its adaptation is the minimum mortality temperature (MMT) and its temporal evolution.
The aim of this study was to analyze the values of MMT in men and women and its temporal evolution during the 1983–2018 period in Spain's provinces. An ecological, longitudinal retrospective study was carried out of time series data, based on maximum daily temperature and daily mortality data corresponding to the study period. Using cubic and quadratic fits between daily mortality rates and the temperature, the minimum values of these functions were determined, which allowed for determining MMT values. Furthermore, we used an improved methodology that provided for the estimation of missing MMT values when polynomial fits were inexistent. This analysis was carried out for each year. Later, based on the annual values of MMT, a linear fit was carried out to determine the rate of evolution of MMT for men and for women at the province level.
Average MMT for all of Spain's provinces was 29.4 °C in the case of men and 28.7 °C in the case of women. The MMT for men was greater than that of women in 86 percent of the total provinces analyzed, which indicates greater vulnerability among women. In terms of the rate of variation in MMT during the period analyzed, that of men was 0.39 °C/decade, compared to 0.53 °C/decade for women, indicating greater adaptation to heat among women, compared to men. The differences found between men and women were statistically significant. At the province level, the results show great heterogeneity.
Studies carried out at the local level are needed to provide knowledge about those factors that can explain these differences at the province level, and to allow for incorporating a gender perspective in the implementation of measures for adaptation to high temperatures.
3. Microplastics: Occurrences, treatment methods, regulations and foreseen environmental impacts
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 1, December 2022, 114224
Microplastics are a silent threat that represent a high degree of danger to the environment in its different ecosystems and of course will also have an important impact on the health of living organisms. It is evident the need to have effective treatments for their treatment, however this is not a simple task, this as a result of the behavior of microplastics in wastewater treatment plants due to their different types and nature, their long molecular chain, reactivity against water, size, shape and the functional groups they carry. Wastewater treatment plants are at the circumference of the release of these wastes into the environment. They often act as a source of many contaminations, which makes this problem more complex. Challenges such as detection in the current scenario using the latest analytical techniques impede the correct understanding of the problem. Due to microplastics, treatment plants have operational and process stability problems. This review paper will present the in-depth situation of occurrence of microplastics, their detection, conventional and advanced treatment methods as well as implementation of legislations worldwide in a comprehensive manner. It has been observed that no innovative or new technologies have emerged to treat microplastics. Therefore, in this article, technologies targeting wastewater treatment plants are critically analyzed. This will help to understand their fate, but also to develop state-of-the-art technologies or combinations of them for the selective treatment of microplastics. The pros and cons of the treatment methods adopted and the knowledge gaps in legislation regarding their implementation are also comprehensively analyzed. This critical work will offer the development of new strategies to restrict microplastics.
4. Urinary phthalate metabolites and anemia: Findings from the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2015–2017)
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 2, December 2022, 114255
Several animal studies have suggested an association between phthalate exposure and decreased hemoglobin levels. To address the lack of epidemiological evidence, we evaluated the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and hematologic indices by using nationally representative data from Korea.
Data from 3722 adults included in the third stage (2015–2017) of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KONEHS) were used. The association between various urinary phthalate metabolites and hematologic indices (hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume [MCV], and red blood cell [RBC], white blood cell [WBC], and platelet counts) was evaluated using linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders. Sex-stratified analysis was performed.
All urinary phthalate metabolites were negatively associated with hemoglobin levels. A two-fold increase in urinary mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-carboxyoctyl phthalate (MCOP), mono-carboxyonyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono-(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate (MCPP) levels was associated with a −0.099 g/dL (95% confidence interval (CI), −0.137 to −0.060), −0.116 g/dL (95% CI, −0.156 to −0.076), −0.111 g/dL (95% CI, −0.154 to −0.068), and −0.144 g/dL (95% CI, −0.198 to −0.089) change in hemoglobin levels, respectively. The RBC count and MCV showed negative and positive associations, respectively, with urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations. WBC counts were positively associated with MECPP, MCOP, MCNP, and MCPP levels, whereas the platelet count showed no association with urinary phthalate metabolites.
Urinary phthalate metabolite concentration showed a negative association with hemoglobin level. Since this was a cross-sectional study, further longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to identify a clear causal linkage and the pathological mechanism underlying phthalate exposure and anemia.
5. Multi-step ahead forecasting of daily urban gas load in Chengdu using a Tanimoto kernel-based NAR model and Whale optimization
Energy, Volume 260, 1 December 2022, 124993
Coal-to-gas switching in urban areas plays an important role in accelerating the pace of carbon neutrality. Accurate urban gas load forecasting is beneficial in balancing the peak-valley difference and achieving high-efficiency gas utilization. This work aims to develop a new method based on Tanimoto kernel-based nonlinear autoregressive (NAR) model for dynamical modelling. The Tanimoto kernel is extended to be available for regression modelling for the first time, and of which some important properties are analyzed. Besides, a new optimization scheme based on holdout validation and Whale optimization algorithm is introduced for hyperparameter optimization. Then, the proposed Tanimoto kernel-based NAR model is applied for 5-step ahead forecasting with four regular lags 6, 9, 12, and 24 of short-(2015/1/1-2015/12/31), medium-(2014/1/1-2015/12/31), and long-(2013/1/1-2015/12/31) term daily urban gas load (UGL) in Chengdu. Results show that the proposed Tanimoto kernel-based model always produces higher precision in 80% of sub-cases than the other 11 kernel models and 8 machine learning models, with the one-step ahead forecasting mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) ranging from 2.3375% to 3.8765%, less than the other models ranging from 0.2335% to 34.5432%, and the proposed optimization scheme is efficient in improving the model’s generalization ability and robustness.
6. A generalized energy management framework for hybrid construction vehicles via model-based reinforcement learning
Energy, Volume 260, 1 December 2022, 124849
Hybrid construction vehicles (HCVs) have more specific tasks and highly repetitive patterns than on-road vehicles. Consequently, they are more suitable for model-based energy management. However, distinctions between work cycles result in adverse scenarios for generalizing model-based energy management. In this study, we solve this problem by proposing a generalized strategy using a model-based reinforcement learning framework. The generalized design highlights three aspects: 1) long-term stability, 2) self-learning ability, and 3) state transition model reuse. A reward function with a trend term is proposed to avoid the cumulative errors between operation cycles and improve the long-term stability of learning. In addition, Gaussian process regression is leveraged to approximate the value function, thereby reducing the computational load and improving the learning efficiency. To further enhance the reusability of the environmental model, a modelling method based on the Gaussian mixture model is put forward. Finally, a generalized HCV energy management framework that includes offline and online learning is designed, where a pre-learning model and an approximation function are adopted for reuse and dynamic learning. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed framework to conventional model-based methods in terms of stability, generality, and adaptability, accompanied by a reduction of 5.9% in fuel consumption.
7. Tracking embodied energy flows of China's megacities via multi-scale supply chains
Energy, Volume 260, 1 December 2022, 125043
Urban energy requirements not only involve energy supplies within self-boundaries, but also impose huge demands via domestic and global supply chains. By constructing a multi-scale input-output model, this study depicts embodied energy uses of China's four megacities including urban, national, and global scales. The total embodied energy requirements of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing are 8576.61, 6309.56, 11448.19, and 6941.43 PJ, respectively. Shanghai has the highest embodied energy use per capita (464.24 GJ), followed by Tianjin (447.49 GJ), Beijing (390.91 GJ), and Chongqing (220.78 GJ). Fixed capital formation accounts for above 70% of local energy requirements in Chongqing as the leading final demand category, while Urban household consumption in Shanghai accounts for nearly 40% of its local energy requirements. More than 20% of energy requirements in Beijing are imported from foreign economies, while about 10% of embodied energy uses in Shanghai are exported to other countries, mainly due to their location advantages and economic openness. Through depicting energy requirements of urban economies, this study is essential to recognize visible and embodied energy uses along multi-scale supply chains and address cross-boundary potentials of energy saving at urban, national, and global scales.
8. Economic and environmental benefits of the integration between carbon sequestration and underground gas storage
Energy, Volume 260, 1 December 2022, 125094
It is critical for China to promote the substitution of coal with natural gas (NG), and the development of carbon sequestration (CS) technology to achieve its carbon neutrality goal by 2060. Underground gas storage (UGS) employing CS technology is an important choice suitable for NG development in large scale and carbon neutral goal requirements. Unfortunately, to date China's UGS has not yet adopted CS technology. This paper focuses on the operation optimization scheme of UGS with CS technology as well as the economic benefits and carbon emission reduction effects of this technology. Firstly, a proxy model with consideration of CS is constructed to improve the operation mode of UGS, and then the operation parameters concerning the dual objective function of maximizing revenue and CS volume is optimized. Based on the range of geological parameters in China, Monte Carlo simulation is used to simulate 100,000 scenarios. The results show that by 2050 the total UGS revenue in China would reach 22.013 billion to 39.423 billion US dollars, and the total CS volume would reach 26.374 million to 54.018 million tons, approximately the total carbon emissions of China's Qinghai Province in 2018. Finally, policy recommendations are provided.
9. Life cycle water footprint and carbon footprint analysis of municipal sludge plasma gasification process
Energy, Volume 261, Part B, 15 December 2022, 125280
In this study, the life cycle carbon footprint and water footprint of municipal sludge-to-hydrogen conversion by plasma gasification were analyzed. Results show that the carbon footprint of the process is 950 kg/GJ, and the water footprint is 3.21 m3/GJ in the basic scenario. The carbon footprint of the Rectisol units was the highest, accounting for 24.04%. Low-pressure nitrogen can be used for acid gas desorption to reduce carbon emissions. The life cycle water consumption comes mainly from electricity consumption (1.93 m3/GJ) and the cooling process (0.610 m3/GJ). Optimizing the electricity structure reduces the water footprint. The effects of 24 scenarios were investigated using sensitivity analysis. It was found that improving hydrogen efficiency or reducing electricity consumption can improve environmental performance. In addition, regional differences in the electricity structure can lead to differences in results. The carbon footprint of hydro-dominated regions (Sichuan, Qinghai, Tibet, and Yunnan) was only 20% of the basic scenario, while the water footprint was approximately threefold. This work presents the values of carbon emissions and water consumption within the specific scenario of municipal sludge-to-hydrogen by the plasma gasification process, providing support for its further development.
10. On the implementation of the circular economy route for E-waste management: A critical review and an analysis for the case of the state of Kuwait
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116181
Electronic waste (e-waste) has become one of the major causes of environmental concerns due to its large volume, high generation rate and toxic environmental burdens. Recent estimates put e-waste generation at about 54 million tonnes per annum with figures reaching approximately 75 million tonnes per annum by 2030. In this manuscript, the state-of-the-art technologies and techniques for segregation, recovery and recycling of e-waste with a special focus on the valorisation aspects of e-plastics and e-metals which are critically reviewed. A history and insight into environmental aspects and regulation/legislations are presented including those that could be adopted in the near future for e-waste management. The prospects of implementing such technologies in the State of Kuwait for the recovery of materials and energy from e-waste where infrastructure is lacking still for waste management are presented through Material Flow Analysis. The information showed that Kuwait has a major problem in waste accumulation. It is estimated that e-waste in Kuwait (with no accumulation or backlog) is generated at a rate of 67,000 tpa, and the imports of broadcasting electronics generate some 19,428 tonnes. After reviewing economic factors of potential recovered plastics, iron and glass from broadcasting devices in Kuwait as e-waste, a total revenue of $399,729 per annum is estimated from their valorisation. This revenue will open the prospect of ventures for other e-waste and fuel recovery options as well as environmental benefits and the move to a circular economy.
11. Management of biogenic taste and odour: From source water, through treatment processes and distribution systems, to consumers
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116225
Biogenic taste and odour (T&O) have become a global concern for water utilities, due to the increasing frequency of algal blooms and other microbial events arising from the combined effects of climate change and eutrophication. Microbially-produced T&O compounds impact source waters, drinking water treatment plants, and drinking water distribution systems. It is important to manage across the entire biogenic T&O pathway to identify key risk factors and devise strategies that will safeguard the quality of drinking water in a changing world, since the presence of T&O impacts consumer confidence in drinking water safety. This study provides a critical review of current knowledge on T&O-causing microbes and compounds for proactive management, including the identification of abiotic risk factors in source waters, a discussion on the effectiveness of existing T&O barriers in drinking water treatment plants, an analysis of risk factors for biofilm growth in water distribution systems, and an assessment of the impacts of T&O on consumers. The fate of biogenic T&O in drinking water systems is tracked from microbial production pathways, through the release of intracellular T&O by cell lysis, to the treatment of microbial cells and dissolved T&O. Based on current knowledge, five impactful research and management directions across the T&O pathway are recommended.
12. Contribution of nitrous oxide to the carbon footprint of full-scale wastewater treatment plants and mitigation strategies- a critical review
Environmental Pollution, Volume 314, 1 December 2022, 120295
Nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, significantly contributes to the carbon footprint of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and contributes significantly to global climate change and to the deterioration of the natural environment. Our understanding of N2O generation mechanisms has significantly improved in the last decade, but the development of effective N2O emission mitigation strategies has lagged owing to the complexity of parameter regulation, substandard monitoring activities, and inadequate policy criteria. Based on critically screened published studies on N2O control in full-scale WWTPs, this review elucidates N2O generation pathway identifications and emission mechanisms and summarizes the impact of N2O on the total carbon footprint of WWTPs. In particular, a linear relationship was established between N2O emission factors and total nitrogen removal efficiencies in WWTPs located in China. Promising N2O mitigation options were proposed, which focus on optimizing operating conditions and implementation of innovative treatment processes. Furthermore, the sustainable operation of WWTPs has been anticipated to convert WWTPs into absolute greenhouse gas reducers as a result of the refinement and improvement of on-site monitoring activities, mitigation mechanisms, regulation of operational parameters, modeling, and policies.
13. Learning pathways for engagement: Understanding drivers of pro-environmental behavior in the context of protected area management
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116204
The participation of local communities in management decisions is critically important to the long-term salience and therefore, success, of protected areas. Engaging community members in meaningful ways requires knowledge of their behavior and its antecedents, particularly values. Understanding how learning influences cooperation in conservation initiatives is also fundamentally important for supporting decisions being made about public lands. However, there is little empirical evidence of how learning from different information sources works in conjunction with values that shape behavior. Using data from a household survey of residents living in the Denali region of Interior Alaska, U.S, we estimated a two-step structural equation model to understand the psychological reasons why stakeholders made decisions to collectively benefit the environment. Results showed that more diverse pathways by which learning occurred were instrumental in explaining why residents performed pro-environmental behaviors over the past year. Additionally, values that reflected the goals of eudaimonia influenced the transfer and negotiation of knowledge exchange among stakeholders as a correlate of behavior. Environmental concern and personal norms were positively associated with reported behaviors operationalized as social environmentalism and living in an environmentally conscientious manner, whereas environmental concern and willingness to pay for protected area management positively influenced civic engagement. We argue that broadening the range of learning spaces and considering a more diverse array of values in communities surrounding protected areas will encourage daily lifestyle changes, social interactions to support environmentalism, and more robust, pluralistic forms of public engagement in natural resource management.
14. Environmental DNA study on aquatic ecosystem monitoring and management: Recent advances and prospects
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116310
Environmental DNA (eDNA) is organismal DNA that can be detected in the environment and is derived from cellular material of organisms shed into aquatic or terrestrial environments. It can be sampled and monitored using molecular methods, which is important for the early detection of invasive and native species as well as the discovery of rare and cryptic species. While few reviews have summarized the latest findings on eDNA for most aquatic animal categories in the aquatic ecosystem, especially for aquatic eDNA processing and application. In the present review, we first performed a bibliometric network analysis of eDNA studies on aquatic animals. Subsequently, we summarized the abiotic and biotic factors affecting aquatic eDNA occurrence. We also systematically discussed the relevant experiments and analyses of aquatic eDNA from various aquatic organisms, including fish, molluscans, crustaceans, amphibians, and reptiles. Subsequently, we discussed the major achievements of eDNA application in studies on the aquatic ecosystem and environment. The application of eDNA will provide an entirely new paradigm for biodiversity conservation, environment monitoring, and aquatic species management at a global scale.
15. Urban land expansion, fiscal decentralization and haze pollution: Evidence from 281 prefecture-level cities in China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116198
Urban land expansion will influence aspects of economy and society, including the quality of the urban environment. This study aims to examine the impacts of urban land expansion in China on haze pollution under the fiscal decentralization system using the spatial Durbin model. Urban land expansion is measured using two dimensions of urban land expansion, namely, intensity and orderliness of the structure of urban land expansion. The results reveal that urban haze pollution in China exhibits significant positive spillover characteristics, which manifest as "high–high” and "low–low” characteristics of spatial agglomeration. In general, improving the expansion intensity of urban land and the orderly structure of urban land expansion can reduce haze pollution in local and surrounding areas. With the improvement of the degree of fiscal decentralization, the positive effect of an orderly urban land structure in reducing haze pollution will be weakened. The above-mentioned influences depict distinct heterogeneities at the levels of city size, type, and location.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Traffic-related air pollution and genome-wide DNA methylation: A randomized, crossover trial
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 850, 1 December 2022, 157968
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been associated with changes in gene-specific DNA methylation. However, few studies have investigated impact of TRAP exposure on genome-wide DNA methylation in circulating blood of human.
To explore the association between TRAP exposure and genome-wide DNA methylation.
We conducted a randomized, crossover exposure trial among 35 healthy adults in Shanghai, China. All subjects were randomly allocated to a traffic-free park or a main road for consecutive 4 h, respectively. Blood genome-wide DNA methylation after each exposure session was measured by the Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip (850K). The differentially methylated CpGs loci associated with TRAP exposure were identified using linear mixed-effect model.
The average concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants including black carbon, ultrafine particles, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide were 2–3 times higher in the road compared to those in the park. Methylation levels of 68 CpG loci were significantly changed (false discovery rate < 0.05) following TRAP exposure, among which 49 were hypermethylated and 19 were hypomethylated. The annotated genes based on the differential CpGs loci were related to pathways in cardiovascular signaling, cytokine signaling, immune response, nervous system signaling, and metabolism.
We found that TRAP exposure was associated with DNA methylation in dozens of genes concerning cardiometabolic health. This trial for the first-time profiled genome-wide methylation changes induced by TRAP exposure using the 850K assay, providing epigenetic insights in understanding the cardiometabolic effects of TRAP exposure.
2. Responses of spatial relationships between ecosystem services and the Sustainable Development Goals to urbanization
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 850, 1 December 2022, 157868
Ecosystem services (ES) are the important component supporting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) realization. In recent decades, rapid urbanization has strongly affected the relationship between ES and SDGs, resulting in the decoupling of ES and SDGs. However, the key urbanization factors dominating the relationship between ES and SDGs are still unclear. In this study, a structural equation model was constructed to explore the impact path and its change of urbanization structure and scale factors on the relationship between ES and SDGs. The results showed that the economic urbanization structure indicator (Engel coefficient) under the influence of technology import significantly impacted the relationship between ES and SDGs in different periods. Under the influence of changes in urban and rural population, population urbanization structure indicator (labor force population proportion) had significant impact on the relationship between ES and economic SDGs, which was significantly stronger in the period of 2010–2015 than in the period of 2000–2005. Land urbanization scale indicators (construction land proportion, and protected natural area proportion) also significantly impacted the relationship between ES and SDGs. Especially for ecological SDGs, the negative impact of construction land on protected natural area increased significantly in the period of 2010–2015, which might further weaken the ES's contribution to SDGs. This study highlighted that along with the continuous transformation of China's society, the key impacts on the relationship between ES and SDGs resulted from the urbanization indicators of scale as well as structure, which provided an extensive support for the sustainable development and social transformation of developing countries and regions.
3. Association between temperature and natural mortality in Belgium: Effect modification by individual characteristics and residential environment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 851, Part 2, 10 December 2022, 158336
There is strong evidence of mortality being associated to extreme temperatures but the extent to which individual or residential factors modulate this temperature vulnerability is less clear.
We conducted a multi-city study with a time-stratified case-crossover design and used conditional logistic regression to examine the association between extreme temperatures and overall natural and cause-specific mortality. City-specific estimates were pooled using a random-effect meta-analysis to describe the global association. Cold and heat effects were assessed by comparing the mortality risks corresponding to the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the daily temperature, respectively, with the minimum mortality temperature. For cold, we cumulated the risk over lags of 0 to 28 days before death and 0 to 7 days for heat. We carried out stratified analyses and assessed effect modification by individual characteristics, preexisting chronic health conditions and residential environment (population density, built-up area and air pollutants: PM
Based on 307,859 deaths from natural causes, we found significant cold effect (OR = 1.42, 95%CI: 1.30–1.57) and heat effect (OR = 1.17, 95%CI: 1.12–1.21) for overall natural mortality and for respiratory causes in particular. There were significant effects modifications for some health conditions: people with asthma were at higher risk for cold, and people with psychoses for heat. In addition, people with long or frequent hospital admissions in the year preceding death were at lower risk. Despite large uncertainties, there was suggestion of effect modification by air pollutants: the effect of heat was higher on more polluted days of O3 and black carbon, and a higher cold effect was observed on more polluted days of PM2.5 and NO2 while for O3, the effect was lower.
These findings allow for targeted planning of public-health measures aiming to prevent the effects of extreme temperatures.
4. Co-effect assessment on regional air quality: A perspective of policies and measures with greenhouse gas reduction potential
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 851, Part 1, 10 December 2022, 158119
Clean air policies have achieved remarkable air quality improvement in China for the last decade. However, as more importance was attached to climate issues and further improvement of air quality, policies with greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential were supposed to play a significant role. Here, we designed a conventional legislation pathway scenario (CLP) and an enhanced greenhouse gas reduction scenario (EGR), to estimate the co-effects of policies effective in GHG reduction on air pollutant control and air quality improvement in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region from 2014 to 2020, adopting a measure-specific evaluation method and an integrated WRF-CAMx model simulation. Results showed that: 1) With the implementation of enhanced measures with GHG reduction potential, emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs and NH3 decreased by 16.4 %, 21.6 %, 18.6 %, 16.5 %, 23.9 % and 15.4 % in EGR scenario respectively, compared with CLP scenario. And the annual mean simulated concentrations of PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 of the YRD decreased by 11.2 %, 15.4 % and 20.6 %, respectively. 2) The average 8-h maxima (MDA8) concentration of O3 presented a slightly increasing trend under the impacts of measures with GHG reduction potential, which might be on account of the unbalanced control of NOx and VOCs, the two major precursors of O3. 3) Based on the source apportionment analysis, major partition of total ozone in the four receptors in YRD was from regional transportation, rather than local formation. And the major sectors contributing to ozone were industry and transportation sector. This study quantitatively assessed the co-benefits of GHG-control-effective policies and specific measures on air quality improvement, which would help to provide implications for future policy-making to achieve air pollution and climate change co-control.
5. Illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater: Analysis, occurrence and consumption in Xinjiang, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 852, 15 December 2022, 158457
The use of illicit drugs has increased considerably across the world. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) of illicit drugs might help determine the types and quantity of illicit drugs consumed in a region. In this study, WBE was applied to analyze illicit drugs in five representative urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Xinjiang, China. The collected samples were pretreated under optimized solid-phase extraction conditions and then analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results revealed the presence of 9 of the 11 evaluated drugs; among them, the concentrations of these substances ranged as follows: METH (2.60–10.02 ng/L), MDMA (0.49–6.87 ng/L), MOR (4.53–44.75 ng/L), COD (2.24–8.30 ng/L), MTD (1.36–3.75 ng/L), COC (0.48 ng/L), THC (5.98–18.89 ng/L), BE (1.12–2.45 ng/L) and KET (1.50 ng/L). And an estimate of the per capita consumption revealed morphine (10.2 mg/d/1000inhabitants), cannabis (3.9 mg/d/1000inhabitants), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (3.9 mg/d/1000 inhabitants), and methamphetamine (2.2 mg/d/1000 inhabitants) as the main substances of abuse in Xinjiang, China. The results of this study might be taken as a reference for future studies on the continuous monitoring of such drugs.
6. The interplays among meteorology, source, and chemistry in high particulate matter pollution episodes in urban Shanghai, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 853, 20 December 2022, 158347
High particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes still occur occasionally in urban China, despite of improvements in recent years. Investigating the influencing factors of high-PM episodes is beneficial in the formulation of effective control measures. We herein present the effects of weather condition, emission source, and chemical conversion on the occurrence of high-PM episodes in urban Shanghai using multiple online measurements. Three high-PM episodes, i.e., locally-accumulated, regionally-transported, and dust-affected ones, as well as a clean period were selected. Stagnant air with temperature inversion was found in both locally-accumulated and regionally-transported high-PM episodes, but differences in PM evolution were observed. In the more complicated dust-affected episode, the weather condition interacted with the emission/transport sources and chemical conversion, resulting in consecutive stages with different PM characteristics. Specifically, there were (1) stronger local accumulation in the pre-dust period, (2) dust-laden air with aged organic aerosol (OA) upon dust arrival, (3) pollutants being swept into the ocean, and (4) back to the city with aged OA. Our results suggest that (a) local emissions could be rapidly oxidized in some episodes but not all, (b) aged OA from long-range transport (aged in space) had a similar degree of oxygenation compared to the prolonged local oxidation (aged in time), and (c) OA aged over land and over the ocean were similar in chemical characteristics. The findings help better understand the causes and evolution of high-PM episodes, which are manifested by the interplays among meteorology, source, and chemistry, providing a scientific basis for control measures.
7. Effect of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation treatment on the solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI FA) - Based materials incorporated with metakaolin
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 1, December 2022, 136089
Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) has been considered as a potential treatment method for the solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWI-FA).The main obstacle for MICP treatment of MSWI-FA is the harsh environment which causes the bacteria fail to maintain their urease activity effectively, thus decreases the solidification effect and material properties. Currently, there is no research on blending metakaolin (MK) as a protective carrier for the bacteria into the MSWI-FA. The effect of the MICP process on the curing properties of MSWI FA-based cementing materials in the MK and MSWI-FA reaction system is largely unknown. In this study, different mixing ratios of MK were used to adjust the Ca/Si/Al ratio in the mixture, and the properties of the cementing material (MSWI-FA mixed with MK and water) and the MICP-treated material (MSWI-FA mixed with MK and bacterial solution) were investigated. This study contributes to find suitable additives to promote effect of MICP on the solidification of MSWI-FA and the improvement of material properties. The results showed when the mixing ratio of MSWI FA was 90 wt %, the MICP treatment was able to increase the compressive strength of the samples up to 0.99 Mp, and the compressive strength of samples reached 1.46 MPa, when the mixing ratio of MSWI FA was 80 wt %. Though the metakaolin did not show inhibitory effect on the urease activity, the compressive strength of the MICP-treated samples did not further show a significant increase when the mixture of MK was increased from 20 wt% to 30 wt%. Further investigation suggested that MICP activities of bacteria utilizing calcium sources could have an impact on the formation/deformation of calcium-containing hydration products in the reaction system, thus affecting the mechanical and chemical properties of MSWI based materials. MICP treatment is effective in the immobilization of certain heavy metals of MSWI FA, especially for Pb, Cd and Zn. This research shows the potential of using MICP to treat the MSWI fly ash, meanwhile, it is necessary to find suitable reaction system with the proper additives in order to further improve the properties of the MSWI FA based material in terms of mechanical performance.
8. Extraction of multi-scale features enhances the deep learning-based daily PM2.5 forecasting in cities
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 2, December 2022, 136252
Characterising the daily PM2.5 concentration is crucial for air quality control. To govern the status of the atmospheric environment, a novel hybrid model for PM2.5 forecasting was proposed by introducing a two-stage decomposition technology of complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and variational mode decomposition (VMD); subsequently, a deep learning approach of long short-term memory (LSTM) was proposed. Five cities with unique meteorological and economic characteristics were selected to assess the predictive ability of the proposed model. The results revealed that PM2.5 pollution was generally more severe in inland cities (66.98 ± 0.76 μg m−3) than in coastal cities (40.46 ± 0.40 μg m-3). The modelling comparison showed that in each city, the secondary decomposition algorithm improved the accuracy and prediction stability of the prediction models. When compared with other prediction models, LSTM effectively extracted featured information and achieved relatively accurate time-series prediction. The hybrid model of CEEMDAN-VMD-LSTM achieved a better prediction in the five cities (R2 = 0.9803 ± 0.01) compared with the benchmark models (R2 = 0.7537 ± 0.03). The results indicate that the proposed approach can identify the inherent correlations and patterns among complex datasets, particularly in time-series analysis.
9. Unravelling relationships between fluorescence spectra, molecular weight distribution and hydrophobicity fraction of dissolved organic matter in municipal wastewater
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 3, December 2022, 136359
The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the influent and secondary effluent from 6 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were investigated with a size exclusion chromatogram (SEC) coupled with multiple detectors to simultaneously detect ultraviolet absorbance, fluorescence, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) as a function of molecular weight (MW). The SEC chromatograms showed that biopolymers (>6 kDa) and humic substances (0.5–6 kDa) comprised the significant fraction in the influent, while humic substances became the abundant proportion in the secondary effluent. Direct linkages between MW distribution and hydrophobicity of DOM in the secondary effluent were further explored via SEC analysis of XAD resin fractions. DON and DOC with different hydrophobicity exhibited significantly distinct MW distribution, indicating that it was improper to consider DOC as a surrogate for DON. Different from DOC, the order of averaged MW in terms of DON was hydrophobic neutral ≈ transphilic neutral > hydrophobic acid > transphilic acid > hydrophilic fraction. Fluorescence spectral properties exhibited a significant semi-quantitative correlation with MW and hydrophobicity of DOC, with Pearson's coefficients of −0.834 and 0.754 (p < 0.01) for biopolymer and humic substances. Meanwhile, regional fluorescence proportion was demonstrated to indicate the MW and hydrophobicity properties of DON at the semi-quantitative level. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) could be explored to provide a rapid estimation of MW distribution and hydrophobic/hydrophilic proportion of DOC and DON in WWTPs.
10. Health implications, distribution and source apportionment of heavy metals in road deposited dust of Jammu City in northern India
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 3, December 2022, 136475
Road deposited dust (RDD) is an important indicators of heavy metal contamination in urban areas. In this study, we measured eight heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) in RDD collected from 34 different locations in Jammu city represented by different land uses such as industrial, urban-residential, high-density traffic, and sub-urban locations, and evaluated their ecological and health risks. The ratio of metal concentrations in RDD to their respective background levels varied as: Cu (3.94) > Pb (3.75) > Zn (3.01) > Cr (1.75) > Ni (1.51) > Mn (1.40) > V (1.35) > Fe (1.1) suggesting Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were enriched anthropogenically. Geospatial maps revealed a heterogeneous distribution of metals in Jammu city with metal(s) specific hotspots primarily localized around high traffic density locations and industrial clusters. The index of geoaccumulation indicated 32%, 26%, 20%, 9%, and 8%, of samples belonged to "moderately polluted” category for Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, and Ni respectively. Health index (HI) showed low non-carcinogenic hazards of metal contamination to adults but a high hazard to children. Though the values of total carcinogenic risks (TCR) (6.53E-05 to 3.71E−04) considerably exceeded the USEPA acceptable levels (1 × 10−6 ≤ TCR <1 × 10−4) suggesting high carcinogenic risks of metal contamination to both adults and children. Besides potential ecological risk index (PERI) revealed that 56% of samples had PERI >40 suggesting "moderate to high ecological risk” of metal contamination in the Jammu city RDD.
11. Building-level wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with transmission and variant trends in a university setting
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 1, December 2022, 114277
The University of South Carolina (UofSC) was among the first universities to include building-level wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 to complement clinical testing during its reopening in the Fall 2020 semester. In the Spring 2021 semester, 24h composite wastewater samples were collected twice per week from 10 residence halls and the on-campus student isolation and quarantine building. The isolation and quarantine building served as a positive control site. The wastewater was analyzed using RT-ddPCR for the quantification of nucleocapsid genes (N1 and N2) to identify viral transmission trends within residence halls. Log10 SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations were compared to both new clinical cases identified in the days following wastewater collection and recovered cases returning to sites during the days preceding sample collection to test temporal and spatial associations. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between the number of cases reported from the sites during the seven-day period following wastewater sampling and the log10 viral RNA copies/L (overall IRR 1.08 (1.02, 1.16) p-value 0.0126). Additionally, a statistically significant positive relationship was identified between the number of cases returning to the residence halls after completing isolation during the seven-day period preceding wastewater sampling and the log10 viral RNA copies/L (overall 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) p-value 0.0222). The statistical significance of both identified cases and recovered return cases on log10 viral RNA copies/L in wastewater indicates the importance of including both types of clinical data in wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) research. Genetic mutations associated with variants of concern (VOCs) were also monitored. The emergence of the Alpha variant on campus was identified, which contributed to the second wave of COVID-19 cases at UofSC. The study was able to identify sub-community transmission hotspots for targeted intervention in real-time, making WBE cost-effective and creating less of a burden on the general public compared to repeated individual testing methods.
12. The evaluation of the 3-30-300 green space rule and mental health
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 2, December 2022, 114387
Background and aims
Urban green space has many health benefits, but it is still unclear how much actually is needed for better health. Recently a new 3-30-300 rule of thumb for urban forestry and urban greening has been proposed, but this rule has not been evaluated for benefits on health. The rule requires that every citizen should be able to see at least three trees from their home, have 30 percent tree canopy cover in their neighbourhood and not live more than 300 m away from the nearest park or green space. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the 3-30-300 green space rule and its components in relation to mental health.
We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a population-based sample of 3145 individuals aged 15–97 years from in Barcelona, Spain who participated in the Barcelona Health Survey (2016–2017). We created 3-30-300 green space indicators using questionnaire data, GIS, remote sensing and land cover maps. Mental health status was assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and also the use of tranquilizer/sedatives or antidepressants and psychiatrist or psychologist visits. Analyses were conducted using mixed effects logistic regression models with districts as the random effect, adjusted for relevant covariates.
We found that people in Barcelona had relatively little exposure to green space, whether through window view, living in an area with sufficient greenness, or access to a major green space, and only 4.7% met a surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule. Residential surrounding greenness, but not tree window view or access to major green space, was significantly associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits. Meeting the full surrogate 3-30-300 green space rule was associated with better mental health, less medication use, and fewer psychologist or psychiatrist visits, but only for the latter combined the association was statistically significant (Odds ratio = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.91).
Few people achieved the 3-30-300 green space in Barcelona and we used a surrogate measure. We observed health benefits when the full surrogate rule was met
13. Machine learning estimation of biodegradable organic matter concentrations in municipal wastewater
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116191
This study investigates whether a novel estimation method based on machine learning can feasibly predict the readily biodegradable chemical oxygen demand (RB-COD) and slowly biodegradable COD (SB-COD) in municipal wastewater from the oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) data of anoxic batch experiments. Anoxic batch experiments were conducted with highly mixed liquor volatile suspended solids under different RB-COD and SB-COD conditions. As the RB-COD increased, the ORP breakpoint appeared earlier, and fermentation occurred in the interior of the activated sludge, even under anoxic conditions. Therefore, the ORP decline rates before and after the breakpoint were significantly correlated with the RB-COD and SB-COD, respectively (p < 0.05). The two biodegradable CODs were estimated separately using six machine learning models: an artificial neural network (ANN), support vector regression (SVR), an ANN-based AdaBoost, a SVR-based AdaBoost, decision tree, and random forest. Against the ORP dataset, the RB-COD and SB-COD estimation correlation coefficients of SVR-based AdaBoost were 0.96 and 0.88, respectively. To identify which ORP data are useful for estimations, the ORP decline rates before and after the breakpoint were separately input as datasets to the estimation methods. All six machine learning models successfully estimated the two biodegradable CODs simultaneously with accuracies of ≥0.80 from only ORP time-series data. Sensitivity analysis using the Shapley additive explanation method demonstrated that the ORP decline rates before and after the breakpoint obviously contributed to the estimation of RB-COD and SB-COD, respectively, indicating that acquiring the ORP data with various decline rates before and after the breakpoint improved the estimations of RB-COD and SB-COD, respectively. This novel estimation method for RB-COD and SB-COD can assist the rapid control of biological wastewater treatment when the biodegradable organic matter concentration dynamically changes in influent wastewater.
14. Urban edge trees: Urban form and meteorology drive elemental carbon deposition to canopies and soils
Environmental Pollution, Volume 314, 1 December 2022, 120197
Urban tree canopies are a significant sink for atmospheric elemental carbon (EC)––an air pollutant that is a powerful climate-forcing agent and threat to human health. Understanding what controls EC deposition to urban trees is therefore important for evaluating the potential role of vegetation in air pollution mitigation strategies. We estimated wet, dry, and throughfall EC deposition for oak trees at 53 sites in Denton, TX. Spatial data and airborne discrete-return LiDAR were used to compute predictors of EC deposition, including urban form characteristics, and meteorologic and topographic factors. Dry and throughfall EC deposition varied 14-fold across this urban ecosystem and exhibited significant variability from spring to fall. Generalized additive modeling and multiple linear regression analyses showed that urban form strongly influenced tree-scale variability in dry EC deposition: traffic count as well as road length and building height within 100–150 m of trees were positively related to leaf-scale dry deposition. Rainfall amount and extreme wind-driven rain from the direction of major pollution sources were significant drivers of throughfall EC. Our findings indicate that complex configurations of roads, buildings, and vegetation produce "urban edge trees” that contribute to heterogeneous EC deposition patterns across urban systems, with implications for greenspace planning.
15. A pilot-scale study of the integrated phycoremediation-photolytic ozonation based municipal solid waste leachate treatment process
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116237
Municipal solid waste (MSW) leachate is a highly polluted liquid that accumulates in the landfill and contains a high concentration of toxic pollutants which can pollute the surrounding surface water and groundwater as well, if not treated properly. In this study, an integrated approach of phycoremediation with photolytic ozonation was employed for the leachate collected from the MSW dumpsite which has high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and ammonium (NH4+) levels. Photolytic ozonation treatment was employed as a pre-treatment step under operating parameters of pH: 9.0; Ozone dosage: 5 g/h; UV-C: λ = 254 nm; and contact time: 60 min, in which the COD and NH4+ in the leachate was reduced up to 81% and 95%, respectively. The selected algae Chlorella vulgaris (C.vulgaris) was employed in a lab-scale study to optimize the inoculum conditions in the photolytic ozonated leachate (POL). The specific growth rate of C.vulgaris was observed as 0.14/d in the POL at the optimized condition (inoculum size of 25% (T25)) during the study period of 11 days. High-rate algal pond (HRAP) was employed for the pilot-scale study in controlled environmental conditions as in the T25 experimental run for the assessment of POL treatment and biomass production. C.vulgaris reduced the concentration of pollutants COD, NH4+, and heavy metals (Cu, Fe) in the POL up to 93%, 94%, and 71%, respectively, with the dry biomass productivity of 0.727 g/L/d which is 3 times higher than the biomass productivity of C.vulgaris in freshwater conditions. The biochemical composition (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) of the harvested biomass has higher lipid production with lipid productivity of 120 mg/L/d which can be used as a feedstock for the production of value-a dded products.
16. Light absorption potential of water-soluble organic aerosols in the two polluted urban locations in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain
Environmental Pollution, Volume 314, 1 December 2022, 120228
PM2.5 (particulate matter having aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) samples were collected during wintertime from two polluted urban sites (Allahabad and Kanpur) in the central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to comprehend the sources and atmospheric transformations of light-absorbing water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA). The aqueous extract of each filter was atomized and analyzed in a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and WSOA concentrations at Kanpur were ∼1.2 and ∼1.5 times higher than that at Allahabad. The fractions of WSOC and secondary organic carbon (SOC) to total organic carbon (OC) were also significantly higher ∼53% and 38%, respectively at Kanpur compared to Allahabad. This indicates a higher abundance of oxidized WSOA at Kanpur. The absorption coefficient (babs-365) of light-absorbing WSOA measured at 365 nm was 46.5 ± 15.5 Mm−1 and 73.2 ± 21.6 Mm−1 in Allahabad and Kanpur, respectively, indicating the dominance of more light-absorbing fractions in WSOC at Kanpur. The absorption properties such as mass absorption efficiency (MAE365) and imaginary component of refractive index (kabs-365) at 365 nm at Kanpur were also comparatively higher than Allahabad. The absorption forcing efficiency (Abs SFE; indicates warming effect) of WSOA at Kanpur was ∼1.4 times higher than Allahabad. Enhancement in light absorption capacity was observed with the increase in f44/f43 (fraction of m/z 44 (f44) to 43 (f43) in organic mass spectra) and O/C (oxygen to carbon) ratio of WSOA at Kanpur while no such trend was observed for the Allahabad site. Moreover, the correlation between carbon fractions and light absorption properties suggested the influence of low-volatile organic compounds (OC3 + OC4 fraction obtained from thermal/optical carbon analyzer) in increasing the light absorption capacity of WSOA in Kanpur.
17. Is Poland at risk of urban road dust? Comparison studies on mutagenicity of dust
Environmental Pollution, Volume 314, 1 December 2022, 120337
Depopulation concerns many polish cities, with the exception of a few metropolises such as Wrocław (Lower Silesia) and Katowice (Upper Silesia) where investments are growing and therefore more humans are exposed to urban environmental pollution. Accumulation of toxic substances on road surfaces is a major global challenge requiring methods of assessing risk that initiate the proper management strategies. In this study urban road dust (URD) has been collected at seventeen sites in Lower and Upper Silesia regions in Poland renowned for their elevated level of pollution. The aim of the study was: (i) to determine PAH concentration in URD in both regions with the identification of their possible sources based on diagnostic ratio; (ii) to assess possible mutagenic effects of URD with the application of Ames test (Salmonella assay); (iii) to define a possible carcinogenic risk related to URD in both studied regions. We found that the total PAH content of collected URD samples ranged from 142.4 to 1349.4 ng g−1. The diagnostic ratio of PAHs in URD for all studied sites showed that pyrogenic combustion predominated indicating traffic-related and biomass sources of pollution. The Ames assay, which has never been used in studies of URD in Poland, demonstrated that in both regions, URD samples (from eight sites), were characterised by the highest mutagenicity values. Additionally, Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) values, based on PAH content only, were between 10 and 6 to 10−4 indicating potential risk of cancer. Reassuming, humans in both agglomerations are exposed to factors or compounds with carcinogenic properties which may have an adverse health effect through the urban road dust mainly due to vehicular traffic, heating systems and industrial activities.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Potential utilization of vitamin C industrial effluents in agriculture: Soil fertility and bacterial community composition
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 851, Part 2, 10 December 2022, 158253
The potential of industrial effluents from vitamin C (VC) production was assessed for agricultural applications by monitoring plant growth, soil properties, and microbial community structure. The results demonstrated that two types of effluents—residue after evaporation (RAE) and concentrated bacterial solution after ultrafiltration (CBS)—had positive effects on the yield and VC content of pak choi. The highest yield and VC content were achieved with a combined RAE-CBS treatment (55.82 % and 265.01 % increase, respectively). The soil fertility was also enhanced by the application of RAE and CBS. Nitrate nitrogen and organic carbon contents in the soil were positively correlated with the RAE addition, while ammonium nitrogen and available phosphorus were positively correlated with the CBS addition. The diversity of bulk and rhizosphere soil bacterial communities increased significantly after the addition of RAE-CBS. The abundance of Sphingomonas and Rhizobium significantly increased after the RAE-CBS treatment, which affected aromatic compound hydrolysis and nitrogen fixation positively. Changes in plant growth and soil fertility were closely related to the upregulation of functional gene expression related to C, N, and P cycling. RAE and CBS application exerted various positive synergistic effects on plant growth, soil fertility, and bacterial community structure. Consequently, the study results confirmed the potential of RAE and CBS application in agriculture. This study provides an innovative solution for utilizing VC industrial wastewater in agriculture in a resourceful and economically beneficial manner while alleviating the corresponding environmental burden.
2. The antibiotic resistance and risk heterogeneity between urban and rural rivers in a pharmaceutical industry dominated city in China: The importance of social-economic factors
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 852, 15 December 2022, 158530
Rivers are important environmental sources of human exposure to antibiotic resistance. Many factors can change antibiotic resistance in rivers, including bacterial communities, human activities, and environmental factors. However, the systematic comparison of the differences in antibiotics resistance and risks between urban rivers (URs) and rural rivers (RRs) in a pharmaceutical industry dominated city is still rare. In this study, Shijiazhuang City (China) was selected as an example to compare the differences in antibiotics resistance and risks between URs and RRs. The results showed higher concentrations of total quinolones (QNs) antibiotics in both water and sediment samples collected from URs than those from RRs. The subtypes and abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in URs were significantly higher than those in RRs, and most emerging ARGs (including OXA-type, GES-type, MCR-type, and tet(X)) were only detected in URs. The ARGs were mainly influenced by QNs in URs and social-economic factors (SEs) in RRs. The composition of the bacterial community was significantly different between URs and RRs. The abundance of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria (ARPBs) and virulence factors (VFs) were higher in URs than those in RRs. Therein, 371 and 326 pathogen types were detected in URs and RRs, respectively. Most emerging ARGs showed a significantly positive correlation with priority ARPBs. Variance partitioning analysis revealed that SEs were the main driving factors of ARGs (80 %) and microbial communities (92 %) both in URs and RRs. Structural equation models indicated that antibiotics (QNs) and microbial communities were the most direct influence of ARGs in URs and RRs, respectively. The cumulative resistance risk of QNs was high in URs, but relatively low in RRs. Enrofloxacin and flumequine posed the highest risk in water and sediment, respectively. This study could help us to better manage and control the risk of antibiotic resistance in different rivers.
3. A rapid assessment bioaccumulation screening (RABS) study design for emerging per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances in mice exposed to industrially impacted surface water
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 1, December 2022, 136159
The shift away from PFOS and PFOA production in the past 20 years towards shorter chain and replacement PFAS has led to the environmental release of complex mixtures of emerging PFAS for which bioaccumulation potential and toxicology are largely unknown. The rate at which emerging PFAS can be prioritized for research in these complex mixtures is often limited by the lack of available chemical standards. We developed a study design that rapidly assesses which emerging PFAS in an environmentally derived mixture have the potential for mammalian bioaccumulation and thus prioritize these emerging chemicals for standard synthesis and toxicity testing. Surface water was collected at an impacted site downstream of an industrial fluorochemical manufacturing outfall and concentrated 100-fold via weak anion exchange, solid-phase extraction. The concentrated extract contained 13 previously identified emerging PFAS, including hexafluoropropylene oxide-dimer acid (HFPO-DA). BALB/c mice were orally dosed with surface water concentrate once a day for seven days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, liver, serum, urine, and feces were collected and the emerging PFAS were semi-quantified based on peak area counts. Of the 13 emerging PFAS, Nafion byproduct-2 (Nafion BP2), Hydro-EVE, PFO4DA, and PFO5DoA had the largest increases in percent composition when comparing serum and liver to the dosing solution, suggesting that these PFAS may have the highest bioaccumulation potential. This finding supports other studies that detected bioaccumulation of the same four PFAS in human serum collected from communities with contaminated drinking water. In the future, the Rapid Assessment Bioaccumulation Screening (RABS) study design can be extended to other complex industrial chemical mixtures impacting surface water in order to better inform chemical prioritization for acquisition and in vitro/in vivo toxicity testing of the potential pollutants.
4. Highly operative NiO/ZnO nanocomposites for photocatalytic removal of azo dye
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 3, December 2022, 136528
The far-reaching technology of semiconductors in treating water pollutants reduces serious health hazards to humans and other eco-systems. With this interpretation, this work is attempted for the first time to synthesize nanosized pristine NiO and ZnO materials, and NiO/ZnO (70:30, 50:50) composites by co-precipitation method. The synthesized materials were then portrayed for their properties using various instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDXS), Fourier transform Infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The main approach of this work is connected with the ultra violet (UV) photocatalytic degradation of MO (methyl orange) by employing the synthesized nanomaterials as catalysts. In view of results, the photocatalytic degradation of NiO/ZnO (70:30) has reported the greatest efficiency than the other catalysts. This outcome lies with the consideration of higher content of NiO present in the composite than ZnO. Further, there was the existence of higher surface area analysed from the BET result. Also, the NiO/ZnO (50:50) sample showed lower degradation efficiency in terms of formed agglomeration when surveyed through TEM. Besides, the positive mechanism of photocatalysis reaction forms the essential hydroxyl radicals which correspond to MO degradation. Moreover, the highly efficient NiO/ZnO (70:30) sample has been trialled for photocatalytic repetition process to observe the stability of degradation. It has accounted with good efficiency for 5 repeated cycles. Finally for UV degradation, the recognized photocatalytic aspect was due to the surface morphology enhanced surface area, synergistic effects of metal oxides and electron-hole charge separation.
5. Removal of toxic dye from dye-laden wastewater using a new nanocomposite material: Isotherm, kinetics and adsorption mechanism
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 2, December 2022, 136413
In this study, (hemi)cellulosic biochar-based environment-friendly non-toxic nanocomposite (nAg-AC) was fabricated for an inordinate overlook of toxic dye-laden wastewater depollution. This hybrid nanocomposite grafted with silver nanoparticles, numerous hydroxyl and π-bond containing functional groups exhibited outstanding physicochemical properties. FESEM images indicated the heterogeneous porous structure of nAg-AC, while BET analysis revealed mesoporous property with a significant increment of overall surface area (132%). Imbedding of silver nanoparticles and the presence of multiple hydroxyl groups was evident from the XRD and XPS spectrum. Further, the TGA result indicated excellent thermal stability, and FTIR analysis suggested the involvement of surface functional groups like –OH, =C = O, =NH, =C = C = , and –CH in Rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption. The adsorbent matrix provided the overall mechanical strength and facilitated recycling, while the functional matrix (biochar) provided the adsorptive locus for augmented RhB adsorption efficiency (92.77%). Experiments pertaining to adsorption isotherms and kinetics modeling suggested that RhB was removed through multilayer chemisorption on the heterogeneous nAg-AC surface. The main RhB adsorption mechanism included cumulative efforts of H-bindings, π-π stacking interaction, pore-filling, and electrostatic interactions. The nAg-AC maintained mechanical robustness with significant RhB adsorption even after three consecutive regeneration cycles signifying facile recycling. The nAg-AC displayed an outstanding efficacy for the real industrial wastewater depollution, indicating high effectiveness for practical environmental applications. Finally, the cost analysis (incorporating economic, environmental, and social dimensions) suggested a significant role of the nAg-AC in promoting and establishing sustainable development with the circular economy.
6. A novel conductive carbon-based forward osmosis membrane for dye wastewater treatment
Chemosphere, Volume 308, Part 2, December 2022, 136367
Forward osmosis (FO) membrane fouling is one of the main reasons that hinder the further application of FO technology in the treatment of dye wastewater. To alleviate membrane fouling, a conductive coal carbon-based substrate and polydopamine nanoparticles (PDA NPs) interlayer composite FO membrane (CPFO) was prepared by interfacial polymerization (IP). CPFO-10 membrane prepared by depositing 10 mL of PDA NPs solution exhibited an optimum performance with water flux of 7.56 L/(m2h) for FO mode and 10.75 L/(m2h) for pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode, respectively. For rhodamine B and chrome black T dye wastewater treatment, the water flux losses were reduced by 21.6%, and 14.5% under the voltages of +1.5 V, and −1.5 V, respectively, compared with no voltage applied after the device was operated for 8 h. The applied voltage had little effect on the fouling mitigation performance of the CPFO membrane for neutral charged cresol red. After the device was operated for 4 cycles, the rejection rates of dyes wastewater treated by the CPFO membranes with applied voltage were close to 100%. The flux decline rate and flux recovery rate of CPFO membrane for rhodamine B and chrome black T wastewater treatment under application of +1.5 V and −1.5 V voltage after 4 cycles were 11.6%, 99.2%, and 16.7%, 98.9%, respectively. Therefore, the voltage-applied CPFO membrane still maintained good rejection and antifouling performance in long-term operation. This study provides a new insight into the preparation of conductive FO membranes for dye wastewater treatment and membrane fouling control.
7. A censorious review on the role of natural lignocellulosic fiber waste as a low-cost adsorbent for removal of diverse textile industrial pollutants
Environmental Research, Volume 215, Part 1, December 2022, 114183
Textile industries produce fabricated colored products using toxic dyes and other harsh chemicals. It is the responsibility of the textile industries to treat and eliminate these hazardous pollutants. However, due to the growing population demand, the treatment of these hazardous effluents is ineffective and imposes the treatment cost over the end users. The release of partially treated effluents in the environment may cause a severe threat to the ecology and its biota. The critical objective is to treat textile effluents efficiently using agricultural natural fiber waste. Generation of agricultural lignocellulosic fibrous waste increases every year due to growing population demand. Its use in the modern world is limited due to synthetic products. An alternative has enumerated to avoid wastage of fibrous resources and its clean disposal.
The main objective of this review paper discussed the feasibility of lignocellulosic fibers and other lignocellulosic materials as natural low-cost adsorbent.
The literature study was performed using Web of Science and Scopus indexed journals. The main factors considered to increase the adsorption ability, including the types of lignocellulosic surface modification techniques were searched with utmost importance for quality results. Intending to summarize the literature survey and provide persuasive content, systematic review process was considered for this novel article.
Out of 230 valuable publications, 159 published articles were considered for the present study until March 2022. The articles surplus with factors affecting adsorption (pH, adsorption dosage, surface area, temperature, initial concentration, contact time, physical and chemical properties of pollutants) and surface modification techniques (physical, chemical, and biological) were considered for this manuscript.
Overall, the physical and chemical modification methods are widely used instead of biological methods due to various factors as discussed briefly. Furthermore, the finding of this article supports the fact that the fibrous by-product resources are wasted in various occasions due to the modern lifestyle. Even though there is evidential possibility to implement the low-cost adsorbents, the industries limit their application prospects due to existing technology and financial compromises.
8. ISO 14001 certification and industrial decarbonization: An empirical study
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 323, 1 December 2022, 116169
Voluntary environmental programs have proven to be a viable tool of pollution abatement, supplementing the command-and-control approach and market-based policies such as emissions trading and taxes. These voluntary initiatives aim to achieve pollution reduction through several channels, including procedural changes, raw material changes, product and packaging redesign, and innovation in pollution control technologies. The ISO 14001 standard is such a voluntary program; first introduced in 1996 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), it has steadily grown since and has been widely adopted by organizations around the world. In this paper, we empirically study the effects of the ISO 14001 standard on carbon emissions using a panel dataset of Korean manufacturing firms. As the largest contributor to the warming of the earth's atmosphere, carbon emissions are the focus of national and international efforts to curb climate change. The Korean manufacturing industry is responsible for about 40% of greenhouse gases in the country and has experienced rapid growth in ISO 14001 certified facilities. Our econometric results indicate that ISO 14001 certification spurs a significant reduction in carbon emissions among certified firms, after accounting for its potential endogeneity with an instrumental variable strategy. The empirical results suggest that wider ISO 14001 certification among carbon-intensive industries can be a credible pathway to help achieve the Korean government's goal of cutting domestic carbon emissions by 37% by 2030.
9. Past local industrial disasters and involvement of NGOs stimulate public participation in transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 324, 15 December 2022, 116271
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) emerged as a regulatory procedure and is now implemented worldwide. EIA aims to increase the sustainability of economic activities by decreasing the impact on environmental components. Transparency of the evaluation process is a key feature of the procedure, and this is achieved predominantly by encouraging participation in public debates. Public participation is essential for EIA's effectiveness, particularly in transboundary projects. This study evaluates whether media coverage of certain projects with transboundary environmental impacts increases public participation during EIA. We analyzed how online media covered the stories about four major projects subject to the EIA procedure in Romania (i.e., reactors 3 and 4 of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant, Oltenita used oil recycling facility, Certej mining project, management of Moldova Noua tailing ponds). We focused on articles published between 2010 and 2020, covering stories about the four projects. We further extracted the stakeholders involved in the projects using social network analysis. We extracted the main topics of articles discussing the four projects using deep categorization tools. The polarities of titles and contents of the articles were assessed using sentiment analysis tools. Our findings indicate that EIA is a media subject only when NGOs become important actors in the process and the industry generated local industrial disasters in the past; otherwise, the media rarely debate the environmental impact of projects. Without NGO reactions, Romanian readers are fed with political and economic aspects driven by large projects rather than environmental issues. The outcome of the current study is significant for understanding what triggers NGOs and the media to take a stand against major projects. Projects involving activities that generated ecological disasters in Romania's recent history are strongly opposed by NGOs and the public. In such cases, environmental and EIA topics are more often included in media stories. However, projects with undeniable environmental impact but without a negative background in Romania do not reach the public agenda, and the media stories do not focus on environmental aspects either, leading to limited public participation within the EIA procedure.
10. Industry perceptions and community perspectives on advancing a hydrogen economy in Australia
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Available online 19 December 2022
Investment in the hydrogen economy is increasing at unprecedented rates. To ensure a swift transition, understanding the diverse perspectives of and how to work collaboratively with all sectors of society is needed. In doing so, how industry stakeholders understand community perceptions and view their role in mediating perceived issues needs to be better understood.
Therefore, this study aims to investigate how industry assumptions of community perspectives of hydrogen technologies compare and contrast with those in an Australian context. Using inductive thematic analysis, this exploratory project analysed 45 publicly-available submissions received in 2019 for the National Hydrogen Strategy from the industry perspective, and 62 public submissions received in 2019–2020 for the Victorian Green Hydrogen Discussion Paper from the community perspective.
Results show that industry stakeholder assumptions about community concerns tended to reflect specific technical issues as opposed to those reported by the community: moral obligations to climate, environment, and future generations. Findings indicate that further work is needed to better align industry understandings and characterisations of the broader public.
Several practical implications for the energy sector are noted. First, hydrogen is unlikely to be immune to community concerns faced by other energy projects; therefore, a robust plan for community inclusion that considers a range of complex, contextual factors is required. Second, there is an opportunity for the formation of a more collaborative approach, which integrates industry and community goals and values. Third, industry and government may benefit from viewing the community as an under-utilised, valuable partnership or resource rather than an object to be managed as part of a development process. We contend that a collaborative framework, including approaches such as co-design and shared identity formation may be critical to furthering the hydrogen agenda.
11. Catalyzing voluntary pro-environmental behavior in the textile industry: Environmentally specific servant leadership, psychological empowerment and organizational identity
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 378, 10 December 2022, 134366
The demand for textile products worldwide has risen as people become increasingly fashion conscious. But looking fashionable causes detrimental effects to the environment as the textile industry is one of the most polluting industries in the world. While the textile industry plays a major role in Pakistan's economy, the industry is also a major cause of pollution for the country. This study examined the role played by environmentally specific servant leaders as a catalyst in creating a green organizational climate and fostering the organizational identity of employees. The findings also illuminate the psychological mechanism that connects a green organizational climate to voluntary pro-environmental behavior under high psychological empowerment. A two-wave study was conducted to collect data from the textile industry employees of Pakistan. Data from the sample of 109 managers and 459 employees revealed that environmentally specific servant leaders triggered the employees' voluntary pro-environmental behavior. Further, environmentally specific servant leadership was positively associated with voluntary pro-environmental behavior through organizational identity. The research supports the serial mediation of green organizational climate and organizational identity in provoking voluntary pro-environmental behavior. Psychological empowerment was also a significant moderator in the environmentally specific servant leadership-voluntary pro-environmental behavior relationship providing support for the collaborative effect of psychological empowerment and a green organizational climate in enhancing organizational identity. The implications for theory and practice are discussed within the context of the textile industry of Pakistan.
12. Evaluating the green development level of global paper industry from 2000-2030 based on a market-extended LCA model
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 380, Part 2, 20 December 2022, 135108
As a traditional energy and carbon intensive sector, it becomes imperative for the global paper industry to realize green development. This paper aims to provide guidance for the green transformation of global paper industry by evaluating the global paper industry green development level in a systematic and dynamic way. This paper employs text-mining method to develop paper industry green development evaluation indicator system and adopts market-extended LCA model and entropy-TOPSIS method to calculate the paper industry green development level of 48 countries/regions. The results show that during 2000–2030 the paper industry green development level of developing countries improves faster than developed countries, where those of developing and developed countries increase from 0.3369 to 0.3938 and from 0.5120 to 0.5517 respectively and the gap between them narrows from 0.1751 to 0.1579. The comparative analysis reveals that the paper industries of developed and developing countries are in different green development stages. Developing countries, represented by China, improve greatly in economic and social dimensions, but decline seriously in ecological dimension due to enlarging resource consumption and environmental damages. On the contrary, developed countries tend to saturate in economic and social dimensions and have been improving fast in ecological dimension, gradually realizing the decoupling of industrial economic development and environmental damages. To further promote the global paper industry green development, developing countries should focus on promoting the coordinated development between economic growth and environment protection and developed countries should play a leading role in the global green transformation by promoting optimal allocation of resources and cross-regional communications of green technologies.
13. Spatial distribution patterns and influencing factors of China's new energy vehicle industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 379, Part 2, 15 December 2022, 134641
New energy vehicles (NEVs) have been recognized as a sustainable eco-innovation to address China's energy and environment problems. As a strategically emerging industry, China's NEV manufacturing industry has been prioritized by governments and manufacturers, significantly impacting its spatial distribution pattern and stimulating the goals of carbon peaking and carbon neutralization. China, the largest NEV producer and consumer and with distinctive regional diversity, has experienced a new round of capacity expansion. Therefore, the literature on the spatial distribution patterns and influencing factors of NEV industry in provincial level is vital for the transformation of manufacturing industry and transportation sector, while to date, the related studies is few. In this paper, considering the number and location of key enterprises/production bases, the spatial distribution and influencing factors of China's NEV industry were discussed by an empirical study. The results are gained from a spatial perspective. Firstly, in general, China's NEV industry presents a "T” spatial distribution pattern. Secondly, a point-axle spatial exploration pattern is proposed, which includes "four points and one axle” namely Bohai rim, Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hubei-Chongqing clusters and Eastern Coastal NEV industrial belt. Thirdly, different types of NEV enterprises show various location preferences and spatial distribution characteristics. Fourthly, the influencing factors on China's NEV spatial distribution are concluded from five aspects of supporting policy, infrastructure condition, economic drivers, technical capacity, and industrial foundation, and the degree of factors is different considering varying enterprise classification and industrial development stage. The findings of this paper provide a reference for rational layout in China's NEV industry, and are expected to stimulate the sustainable development of NEVs.
14. Resource conservation and sustainable development in the metal cutting industry within the framework of the green economy concept: An overview and case study
Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 34, December 2022, e00507
The metal cutting industry has an important role in the growth of the global economy. In this industry, while research is made on factors such as cutting tool, cooling/lubrication environments, improved cutting parameters, etc., for increased productivity, serious efforts are also made to obtain environmentally friendly and healthy processes. Based on recent developments in tool materials, cutting speeds have increased significantly in machining operations. However, the increased temperatures with increasing cutting speeds have also reduced productivity and caused resource and product losses. The use of cutting fluids, especially in the machining of superalloys, has a vital task in reducing the problems. However, petroleum-based cutting fluids, which are still frequently used and have an important share in the industry, do not comply with the concept of a green economy due to environmental effects and costs. For this reason, the use of sustainable cutting fluids and optimum parameters in metal cutting industry processes has become a necessity. From this perspective, this study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the outputs of the metal cutting industry were examined within the scope of the principles of green economy. In the second stage, a case study was then conducted involving the machining of Inconel 718 and Ti6Al4V alloys at different cutting speeds and under LCO2. In the case study, critical outputs, both from an economic and sustainability point of view, namely cutting tool wear, surface roughness, specific energy consumption, machining costs and carbon emissions are examined. The results obtained in the machining of both materials were compared with each other. Total cost and carbon emissions can be reduced by up to 35% and 7%, respectively, under the appropriate parameter combination and LCO2 cooling conditions.
15. Sustainable development in the construction industry: The role of frugal innovation
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 380, Part 2, 20 December 2022, 134922
The journey towards sustainable development is largely limited by practices in the construction industry, which is a significant generator of wastes and other anthropogenic emissions. It therefore follows that a transition to cleaner construction technologies and methods through the deployment of innovations that minimize the use of resources and anthropogenic pollutants such as greenhouse gasses (GHG), aerosols, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide, nitrogen oxide, benzene, and other emissions which adversely affect humans and impact the environment will foster the sustainable development goals. To sustainably develop, it is imperative for the construction industry as a hub of economic development to look inwards for solutions that are frugal, pragmatic, and inclusive. The tools for understanding the phenomena investigated are derived from the theories of frugal innovation, sustainable construction, and appropriate technology. The case of Hydraform was studied to understand how it contributes to sustainable development. Semi-structured interviews with industry experts and stakeholders provide qualitative insights into the phenomena investigated. The findings indicate that frugal innovation (FI) in the construction industry is shaped by large institutional players such as state governments, and non-profit organizations (NGOs), while a segment of the target user-groups interpret the innovation as lower-class status artifacts. Specifically, this study contributes to an understanding of how locally-engineered technology can foster development in the bottom of the pyramid (BoP) economies. Practitioners also gain through knowledge of the diffusion inhibitors, and how to navigate the diffusion barriers.
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