Thứ tư, 30/11/2022 07:14 (GMT+7)

Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 26-2022

MTĐT -  Thứ hai, 11/07/2022 09:08 (GMT+7)

Theo dõi MTĐT trên

Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 26-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:

Về quản lý môi trường

- Phát triển một quy trình kiểm tra nước thải hiệu quả để giám sát SARS-CoV-2 thông lượng cao trên toàn quốc.

- Đánh giá mối quan hệ giữa việc tạo ra chất thải, của cải và phát thải khí nhà kính ở Thụy Sĩ: Một số đề xuất chính sách nhằm tối ưu hóa chất thải rắn đô thị trong quan điểm kinh tế tuần hoàn.

- Một hệ thống năng lượng không phát thải ròng ở Ấn Độ vào năm 2050: Một cuộc thăm dò.

- Lập bản đồ tình trạng dễ bị tổn thương xã hội cấp hạt gần đây (1997–2017) và tương lai (2030) đối với các điều kiện kinh tế xã hội và các hiểm họa tự nhiên trên khắp Iran.

- Quản lý lâu dài và bền vững chất thải rắn đô thị: Đánh giá.

- Các thể chế và khai thác tài nguyên môi trường trong cộng đồng địa phương ở Mozambique.

- Đặc trưng cho cảnh biển theo quy định ở Aotearoa New Zealand: Kết nối các quy mô địa phương, khu vực và quốc gia để quản lý dựa trên hệ sinh thái biển.

- Các phương pháp tiếp cận tổng hợp để giảm thiểu các mối đe dọa từ các yếu tố độc hại tiềm tàng đang nổi lên: Một con đường phía trước để quản lý môi trường bền vững.

- Bản đồ vấn đề thích ứng (APM): Kết nối các điểm dữ liệu để xây dựng các quyết định bảo tồn môi trường ngày càng được thông tin và có thể bảo vệ được.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Kết hợp dữ liệu nhiệt độ bề mặt đất liền GOES-R và ECOSTRESS để điều tra các biến thể về ngày của đảo nhiệt đô thị bề mặt.

- Phân hủy phi sinh học chất thải rắn đô thị trong điều kiện bãi chôn lấp nhiệt độ cao.

- Các chất per-và polyfluoroalkyl trung tính và có thể ion hóa trong bầu khí quyển đô thị: Sự xuất hiện, nguồn và vận chuyển.

- Ước tính những thay đổi về mức độ ô nhiễm không khí do các biện pháp khóa COVID-19 dựa trên một kịch bản dự đoán thông thường trong kinh doanh bằng cách sử dụng các mô hình khai thác dữ liệu: Một nghiên cứu điển hình cho các địa điểm giao thông đô thị ở Tây Ban Nha.

- Đánh giá dài hạn 10 năm về việc xác định đặc điểm xu hướng công nghệ không gian và tỷ trọng nguồn của kim loại (loid) trong đất trên cạn dọc theo bờ biển phía Tây của Hàn Quốc Các organosulfat liên kết với PM2.5 ở hai thành phố Đông Địa Trung Hải: Sự thống trị của isoprene organosulfates.

- Xử lý nước thải và các chất ô nhiễm mới nổi: Phân tích sinh trắc học.

- Sự bất hoạt của vi khuẩn có trong nước thải thành phố thứ cấp bằng cách sử dụng hiệu ứng lai của chất xúc tác Fe-TiO2.

- Dự báo chính xác chất lượng nước trong mạng lưới thoát nước đô thị với mô hình EMD-LSTM tích hợp.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Việc sử dụng chất thải kiềm trong quá trình thu giữ và hấp thụ cacbon thụ động: Những hứa hẹn, thách thức và các khía cạnh môi trường.

- Quá trình oxy hóa bằng xúc tác điện của nước thải natri cefotaxime nồng độ thấp sử dụng điện cực Ti/SnO2 – RuO2: Cơ chế phân tích khả thi và suy thoái.

- Ngập lụt và thoát nước gây ra các phản ứng phi sinh học kiểm soát khả năng hòa tan kim loại trong đất của khu công nghiệp bị ô nhiễm.

- Sự phân hủy điện Fenton tiên tiến của hỗn hợp nước thải công nghiệp dược phẩm và thép bằng than hoạt tính pallet sử dụng lò phản ứng điện cực ba chiều.

- Rang quặng đuôi chì-kẽm biến tính bằng cách sử dụng kiềm làm chất hoạt hóa và giảm thiểu ô nhiễm Cd của nó: Đặc điểm và cơ chế.

- Điều chỉnh cấu trúc và hoạt tính của chất xúc tác Fe2O3 – Al2O3 thông qua quá trình tổng hợp thủy nhiệt cho ống nano cacbon và sản xuất hydro từ nhựa polyolefin.

- Chất xúc tác quang Z-giản đồ Z trực tiếp dựa trên bismuth mới nổi để phân hủy thuốc nhuộm hữu cơ và dư lượng kháng sinh.

- Đo lường và phân tích áp lực sinh thái do phát triển công nghiệp trong vành đai kinh tế sông Dương Tử từ năm 2010 đến năm 2018.

Dưới đây là tên và phần tóm tắt các nghiên cứu bằng tiếng Anh:

QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG

1. Multi-scale analysis of the impacts of meteorology and emissions on PM2.5 and O3 trends at various regions in China from 2013 to 2020 2. Key weather elements and emissions

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153847

Abstract

A multiscale analysis of meteorological trends was carried out to investigate the impacts of the large-scale circulation types as well as the local-scale key weather elements on the complex air pollutants, i.e., PM2.5 and O3 in China. Following an accompanying paper on synoptic circulation impact (Gong et al., 2022), using a multi-linear regression model, the trends of key meteorological elements at local scale, i.e., temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, PBL height, precipitation and wind speed, are analyzed and correlated with the trends of PM2.5 and O3 levels to identify significantly influencing factors in seven Chinese cities. Furthermore, with additional emission surrogates introduced in the regression model, the impacts on the trends by meteorology and emission were separated and quantified. Results show that the increasing trends of O3 at most Chinese cities were largely attributed to the trends of meteorological elements of temperature and solar radiation, while the trends of PM2.5 are mostly contributed by the emission reduction measures of PM2.5 and its precursors. The meteorology alone can explain approximately 57–80% of the O3 variations and only 20–33% of the PM2.5 variations. With the addition of emission surrogates, this explanation percentage is increased to about 57–82% for O3 but significantly enhanced to 71–83% for PM2.5.

2. Decomposition and prediction of China's carbon emission intensity towards carbon neutrality: From perspectives of national, regional and sectoral level

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153839

Abstract

China has actively participated in global climate governance and put forward its ambitious carbon neutrality target. The formulation of scientific plans has become the primary concern of the policy makers, especially for the 14th and 15th Five-Year Plans (FYP) which are important periods to secure the neutrality pledge and transform the whole economy. Since the carbon emission intensity play a key role in achieving carbon neutrality, it is necessary to summarize and explore the evolution trend of carbon emission intensity as well as its driving factors. Therefore, an integrated decomposition framework is developed to study the carbon emission intensity in the past three FYPs from the national, regional and industrial levels. Furthermore, towards the carbon neutrality target, moderate scenario and advanced scenario are designed to predict the future evolution trend of the carbon emission intensity and driving factors in the 14th and 15th FYPs (2021–2030). The main results are as follows: (1) During the three FYPs, factor substitution is the main force contributing to the decreased carbon emission intensity, but this effect gradually decreased. This indicates that it is an inevitable trend to further promote internal optimization and reform of energy system. (2) The change of energy structure exerts a positive effect on the carbon emission intensity decline, but it is not significant, especially in the industrial sector. (3) With the rich factor endowment, central and eastern regions can reduce carbon emission intensity through factor substitution and industrial structure transformation, while the western region is not. (4) In the future, the role of industrial structure optimization and technology progress will be gradually significant. Finally, our findings provide practical guidance on achieving carbon emission intensity reduction and enlightenments on policymaking.

3. Estimating antibiotics use in major cities in China through wastewater-based epidemiology

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154116

Abstract

Antibiotics have been widely used for disease treatment and may pose adverse effects on human health due to increasing presence of antibiotic-resistant genes in environment. Therefore, it is important to understand antibiotic use in a specific region or country. China is a major producer of antibiotic and has a large number of consumers. In this work, wastewater samples were collected from 76 wastewater treatment plants in 31 major cities covering all of the geographic regions of China. Concentrations of eight metabolites of sulfonamide, quinolone and macrolide antibiotics were determined. The consumption levels of corresponding antibiotics were estimated based on wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) approach. Desmethyl ofloxacin, desethylene norfloxacin, desmethyl azithromycin and N4-acetyl sulfamethoxazole were detected in all or the overwhelming majority of wastewater samples. The estimated ∑8Antibiotics consumption levels ranged from 275.1 ± 139.4 mg/1000 inh/d (Nanchang) to 3860.9 ± 1332.3 mg/1000 inh/d (Harbin) with a mean level of 1170.0 ± 452.1 mg/1000 inh/d. Quinolones accounted for the highest proportion (74.3%, national average contribution) in the total consumption level, with norfloxacin being the dominant one (38.4%), followed by ofloxacin (29.1%) and ciprofloxacin (6.8%). The ∑8Antibiotics consumption level in northern China (1517.0 ± 1022.8 mg/1000 inh/d) was statistically higher than the level in southern China (1060.7 ± 989.1 mg/1000 inh/d) (t-test, p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant difference was found between eastern (1256.2 ± 1105.1 mg/1000 inh/d) and western China (988.3 ± 474.5 mg/1000 inh/d) (t-test, p > 0.05). The overview of antibiotics consumption derived from this work can serve as a baseline to assess the implementation of related plans/policies in China.

4. Development of an efficient wastewater testing protocol for high-throughput country-wide SARS-CoV-2 monitoring

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154024

Abstract

Wastewater-based surveillance has been widely used as a non-intrusive tool to monitor population-level transmission of COVID-19. Although various approaches are available to concentrate viruses from wastewater samples, scalable methods remain limited. Here, we sought to identify and evaluate SARS-CoV-2 virus concentration protocols for high-throughput wastewater testing. A total of twelve protocols for polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and four protocols for ultrafiltration-based approaches were evaluated across two phases. The first phase entailed an initial evaluation using a small sample set, while the second phase further evaluated five protocols using wastewater samples of varying SARS-CoV-2 concentrations. Permutations in the pre-concentration, virus concentration and RNA extraction steps were evaluated. Among PEG-based methods, SARS-CoV-2 virus recovery was optimal with 1) the removal of debris prior to processing, 2) 2 h to 24 h incubation with 8% PEG at 4 °C, 3) 4000 xg or 14,000 xg centrifugation, and 4) a column-based RNA extraction method, yielding virus recovery of 42.4–52.5%. Similarly, the optimal protocol for ultrafiltration included 1) the removal of debris prior to processing, 2) ultrafiltration, and 3) a column-based RNA extraction method, yielding a recovery of 38.2%. This study also revealed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA recovery for samples with higher virus concentration were less sensitive to changes in the PEG method, but permutations in the PEG protocol could significantly impact virus yields when wastewater samples with lower SARS-CoV-2 RNA were used. Although both PEG precipitation and ultrafiltration methods resulted in similar SARS-CoV-2 RNA recoveries, the former method is more cost-effective while the latter method provided operational efficiency as it required a shorter turn-around-time (PEG precipitation, 9–23 h; Ultrafiltration, 5 h). The decision on which method to adopt will thus depend on the use-case for wastewater testing, and the need for cost-effectiveness, sensitivity, operational feasibility and scalability.

5. Assessing the relationship among waste generation, wealth, and GHG emissions in Switzerland: Some policy proposals for the optimization of the municipal solid waste in a circular economy perspective

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131555

Abstract

This study aims to investigate the nexus among waste generation, economic growth, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in a circular economy framework for the case of Switzerland. Using two different empirical approaches (Dynamic Auto-Regressive Distributed Lags and Fuzzy Cognitive Maps), time-series results show that municipal waste and economic growth have both a short- and a long-run impact on GHG emissions. Moreover, causality analyses evidence the presence of a unidirectional causal flow running from municipal waste and economic growth to greenhouse gas emissions, while a bidirectional causality between municipal waste and economic growth. The results of the static analysis of the municipal solid waste cognitive map show that the most significant system variables relate to the domains of "policy drivers” (education and awareness campaigns and extended producer responsibility) and "environment and health” (GHG emissions). Findings of the policy scenario simulations reveal that the most effective drivers are those about the mission-oriented policy approach.

6. A net-zero emissions energy system in India by 2050: An exploration

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131417

Abstract

This study examines whether adequate opportunities exist for full decarbonisation of the Indian energy sector and highlights where enough choices for full decarbonisation by 2050 do not exist. The study suggests transformative levels of electrification, energy efficiency improvements, and a switch towards decarbonised fuels (largely green hydrogen, decarbonised electricity, and bioenergy) as the three mainstays of India’s decarbonisation strategy that could plausibly shift the energy sector towards a net-zero emissions future. The study also indicates that the heavy freight and industrial sectors face challenges in achieving full decarbonisation because of a lack of adequate technological solutions. Accordingly, residual emissions of about 1.3 gigatonnes in the system would require carbon sequestration options, including both technological and nature-based solutions, to achieve net-zero emissions. This study is expected to encourage further deliberations and deep dives into energy sub-sectors, which would benefit planners and policymakers in delineating India’s sustainable energy transition strategy.

7. Mapping recent (1997–2017) and future (2030) county-level social vulnerability to socio-economic conditions and natural hazards throughout Iran

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131841

Abstract

Social vulnerability assessments are intended to help mitigate or prevent adverse socio-economic effects of environmental hazards on human societies. In this study, we monitored the change of social vulnerability to multiple environmental hazards over a 20-year (1997–2017) period in Iran and provide a prediction of social vulnerability for 2030 under the RCP 8.5 climate change scenario. Following validation of two social vulnerability index (SoVI) values based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and a weighed method using observed county-level disaster outcomes, social vulnerability to four environmental variables or risk factors (i.e., drought, flood, landslide, and earthquake) was evaluated with 32 socio-economic values using the weighted method. Social vulnerability was strongly correlated with its three dimensions (i.e., exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity), and each dimension was strongly correlated with its constituent variables. Results showed that despite improved adaptive capacity between 1997 and 2017, simultaneously increased sensitivity and exposure increased social vulnerability spatially unevenly throughout the country, with greater increases in northern and northeastern than in central and southeastern counties. Extrapolating socio-economic variables and accounting for projected increases in drought severity is expected to increase the social vulnerability of the country by ∼27%, with forty-three (11%) mostly northern, northwestern, and northeastern counties with a combined population of ∼37 million people (46% of the current Iranian population) exposed to high to very high levels of vulnerability by 2030. Adaptation programs to enhance the resilience following deteriorating socio-economic conditions and climate change-induced droughts in these counties may require better water management strategies to enhance water security. Given the socio-economic conditions of the country and international sanctions, programs should be flanked by more balanced investment in less developed and more vulnerable counties to increase economic and social prosperity and prevent mass migration to more developed areas. This major challenge necessitates more accurate economic planning, development of investment, and improved international relations.

8. Spatiotemporal pattern assessment of China’s industrial green productivity and its spatial drivers: Evidence from city-level data over 2000–2017

Applied Energy, Volume 307, 1 February 2022, 118248

Abstract

City-level accounting of industrial green productivity (IGP) is necessary to identify the different circumstances of industrial green transformation and development across Chinese cities. However, the lack of energy consumption data in the urban industrial sector leads to the assessment of China’s IGP at the macro provincial level, which is not conducive to further formulating systematic measures to improve IGP. Hence, based on the multi-source nighttime light (NTL) data fitted and corrected by DSMP/OLS and NPP/VIIRS images, this study simulates the total energy consumption of urban industrial sector and establishes an IGP analysis database combined with socio-economic data. Subsequently, the spatiotemporal pattern and drivers of IGP are systematically investigated by means of the Dagum Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation model, Markov transition probability matrix, and spatial econometric model. Four important findings arise from the analyses. Stylized facts show that an overall increase in IGP is accompanied by the exacerbation in spatial inequality, the year 2006 is a turning point from frequent fluctuations to steady growth. Specifically, interregional disparities have gradually become the main source of overall disparities in IGP across eight comprehensive economic zones, hypervariable density is the main source of overall disparities across three major urban agglomerations. Spatially, Global Moran’s I of IGP uninterruptedly increases from 0.043 in 2008 to 0.155 in 2017, showing a positive spatial correlation of high-high agglomeration and low-low agglomeration. Additionally, IGP has a strong spatial locking effect with the unchanged probability of 78.81%, 72.18%, 75.94%, 83.67%, and there is the coexistence of win–win and beggar-thy-neighbor phenomenon to a large extent. Results further reveal that IGP has a positively spatial spillover effect, economic development level, human capital, industrial agglomeration, and environmental regulations all work for driving IGP growth in local and neighboring areas. Based on the findings, policy recommendations for the improvement of IGP are provided.

9. Striking the balance: sustainability and institutional transitions in the European Environment Agency

Futures, Available online 17 June 2022, 102984

Abstract

We look at how concepts of uncertainty and complexity undergo a series of balancing acts when moving between scientific research and policy. By questioning the prediction and control framework, uncertainty and complexity create both opportunities for new policy framings to emerge and challenges to the current role of institutions. We identify three balancing acts. First, there is the challenge of acknowledging the limits of the govern-ability of the future while retaining a role for governing agents. Second, the interface with policy leads to the selection of policy-relevant evidence that may be in tension with creating an inclusive space for the plurality of legitimate but often contrasting, perspectives at the interface with society. Third, there is a tension between the expectation that policy recommendations be formulated to solve existing problems and the new questions and processes that are opened when taking uncertainty and complexity into account. The paper takes as its case study the policy recommendations formulated by the European Environment Agency about sustainability transitions. Results show that the innovative and disruptive suggestions, which are made in the main text, are very much nuanced when it comes to policy recommendations and part of the transformative power of these concepts is lost through the balancing of opposing institutional needs. The value of the report lies not necessarily in the practical advice it formulates but in the more modest contribution of giving visibility to debates about uncertainty and complexity. Sustainability transition concepts serve as gatekeepers for new debates and new narratives to develop if sustained in time. Opportunities windows for new debates to emerge, however, may close fast.

10. Investment in energy resources, natural resources and environment: Evidence from China

Resources Policy, Volume 76, June 2022, 102707

Abstract

Energy resource investment has been critical for a sustainable economy. Its significance, however, intensified, notably post COVID-19. The function of energy efficiency in ensuring a sustainable environment has been undervalued. However, unlike previous studies, this study aims to analyze the role of energy efficiency, industrial production and investment in energy on carbon emissions for China employing data from 1990 to 2020. The study uses updated time series econometric methods such as Narayan and Pop unit root test, Bayer-Hanck cointegration method, fully modified, dynamic and canonical cointegration analysis. The results confirmed cointegrating relationship among variables via Bayer-Hanck cointegration approach. The study also revealed that energy efficiency and carbon emissions had an inverse connection. Meanwhile, China's industrial production, energy investment, and gross domestic product have all been found to increase emissions. Consequently, natural resource rents harm the ecosystem. Based on the empirical findings, this study recommends the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and the use of energy from efficient sources in order to assist China to lessen environmental deterioration.

11. Adaptive problem maps (APM): Connecting data dots to build increasingly informed and defensible environmental conservation decisions

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 312, 15 June 2022, 114826

Abstract

Connecting individual datasets from different projects to each other and to decisions can help manager-researcher-administrator teams link existing information and adapt their environmental decision-making process as new information becomes available. Throughout their careers, environmental professionals often collect data on many individual projects that address similar sets of natural resource conservation problems. Consequently, the institutions, agencies, and organizations that employ these environmental professionals accumulate a large reservoir of project-specific information. However, opportunities to advance broader natural resource conservation goals are lost if individual projects and datasets are not integrated. Here we illustrate how adaptive problem mapping (APM) provides a framing and internal structure that charts relationships among pertinent information types, germane data sets, applicable concepts, and relevant decisions. In the APM process, appropriately defined problem statements and coordinated bridging questions connect data and concepts to build a network of increasingly informed and defensible decisions. Although APM can be applied to many environmental problems, we focus on examples from aquatic systems in which fish are conservation priorities. Prioritizing an initial evaluation and regular modification of the relationships among datasets and decisions using the APM process helps manager-researcher-administrator teams envision, track, and update what is known, unknown, learned, and needed. The resulting broader point of view advances strategic planning, evaluations of progress, assessments of opportunity costs, identification of options, and justifications of decision-related actions.

12. Integrated approaches to mitigate threats from emerging potentially toxic elements: A way forward for sustainable environmental management

Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112844

Abstract

Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as toxic metal (loid)s and other emerging hazardous contaminants, exist in the environment and poses a serious threat. A large amount of wastewater containing PTEs such as cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, arsenic, lead, zinc, etc. Release from industries during production process. Besides these, chemical-based fertilizers used in soils during crop production have become one of the crucial sources of PTEs. Various techniques are being employed for the mitigation of PTEs like chemical precipitation, ion exchange, coagulation, activated carbon, adsorption, membrane filtration, and bioremediation. Among these mitigation strategies, biological processes such as bioremediation, phytoremediation etc. Are extensively used, as they are economic have high-efficiency rate and are eco-friendly. This review intends to provide information on PTEs contamination through various sources; along with the toxicity of metal (loid)s with respect to their patterns of transmission and risks in the changing environment. Various remediation methods for the management of these pollutants along with their techno-economic perspective are also summarized in this review.

13. Characterising the regulatory seascape in Aotearoa New Zealand: Bridging local, regional and national scales for marine ecosystem-based management

Ocean & Coastal ManagementVolume 224, 1 June 2022, 106193

Abstract

In the face of declining ocean health and marine biodiversity, marine management arrangements may need to change in many jurisdictions. This can occur in a planned process of legislative and institutional reform undertaken by central government, or by an incremental and ad hoc ‘unplanned’ process through court decisions or local actions. In either case, targeted characterisations of the contemporary regulatory seascape are necessary to accurately diagnose what system elements may need major change to address ecological degradation. In this study, we examine the regulatory and institutional interplay between central government, sub-national regional authorities, and Indigenous Māori in the protection and management of marine biogenic habitats in New Zealand. Based on an analysis of government documents, institutional responses to a set of questions, and recent case law, we found generic institutional failings to implement core legislation, at both sub-national ‘regional’ and national scales. In particular, less than half of the regional authorities had given effect to a mandatory national instrument that set environmental bottom-lines, and central government failure to identify and protect significant fisheries habitats. Concurrently, we identified an upsurge in requests for temporary fishing closures through rāhui (traditional customary prohibitions), and the potential for tools enabled in customary marine tenure legislation to play a significant future role in managing marine ecosystem health. Our study highlights that the regulatory seascape is devolving towards a greater polycentricity of management with an increased involvement of Māori at sub-national and local levels, which may hold lessons for Indigenous peoples in other jurisdictions. These ‘unplanned reforms’ are likely to be a key driver of improvements in the management and governance of biodiverse marine biogenic habitats at national and sub-national level, both prior to, and as a consequence of, the New Zealand Government's planned ocean reform programme.

14. Institutions and environmental resource extraction within local communities in Mozambique

Forest Policy and Economics, Volume 139, June 2022, 102724

Abstract

Scholars contend that governance structure, whether community-facilitated or state-facilitated natural resource management, shape environmental resource use. However, the complex manifestations of institutions and governance structure suggest the need for a continual application of mixed-method analytical approaches to understand the environmental resource use outcomes linked to individual effects and the interaction of both state- and community-based governance structure. This paper addresses the current lacunae, by quantitatively analyzing the effects of community-facilitated and state-facilitated natural resource management on the exploitation of environmental resources in rural Mozambique. The common pool resource literature holds that community-based institutions either countervail or complement state institutions. We examine this hypothesis by introducing an interaction term to test for the dominance of one type of institution over another. We use heteroscedasticity-based instrumental variables estimation and data collected from 238 households in seven villages of the Mangalane community, located in the Gaza province. These data were complemented by key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The results reveal the following: (i) both the community-facilitated natural resource management and the interaction term play a significant role in constraining participation in environmental resource extraction; (ii) community-facilitated natural resource management are among the important drivers of relative environmental income; and (iii) although community-facilitated natural resource management show a positive and highly significant influence in shaping environmental resource extraction, state-facilitated natural resource management dominance is prevalent in this context. This paper not only sheds light on the relative influence of both community-facilitated and state-facilitated natural resource management, it also provides useful insights for future studies on institutional change in resource management settings of Africa.

15. Sustainable and long-term management of municipal solid waste: A review

Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 18, June 2022, 101067

Abstract

This study investigates landfill and incineration waste management strategies as potential and prevalent traditional methods of disposing of municipality-generated waste because of their cheapness and simplicity but requires a high level of management to mitigate their negative impacts. Interestingly, sustainability in municipal solid waste (MSW) is no longer limited to cleaning, uninterrupted operation, and sanitation but entails a bigger picture of a global view of ensuring environmental protection, social balance, economic stability, and a sustainable environment. The review further examined pollutant partitioning for a better understanding of the movement of hydrophobic colloids with different phases such as marine, groundwater, and soil as a factor to be considered when selecting a sustainable MSW management option. Furthermore, the incorporation of cleaner production in any waste management method has contributed immensely to the enhancement of environmental sustainability and cleaner bioresources by tackling the emergence of any environmental depletion that is likely to arise.

MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ

1. Combining GOES-R and ECOSTRESS land surface temperature data to investigate diurnal variations of surface urban heat island

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153652

Abstract

The surface urban heat island (SUHI) phenomenon is characterized by both high spatial and temporal variability, while its diurnal (i.e., diel) variations have rarely been investigated because traditional satellites and sensors flying on polar orbits (e.g., Landsat, MODIS) have no diurnal sampling capability. Here we combined land surface temperature (LST) data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES-R) and the Ecosystem Spaceborne Thermal Radiometer Experiment on Space Station (ECOSTRESS) to explore the diurnal variations of SUHI and thermal differentiation among various land covers over the Boston Metropolitan Area. With the combined use of the LST data from GOES-R and ECOSTRESS, we took advantage of the strengths of both GOES-R (i.e., high frequency in each day and night) and ECOSTRESS (i.e., much finer spatial resolution). The SUHI intensity of the urban-core and suburban areas both exhibited clear diurnal patterns for different seasons: a continuous increase in the SUHI intensity from sunrise to noon and a decrease thereafter to sunset, followed by a relatively low and constant intensity during nighttime. The LST contrasts among different land cover types were clearly larger in the daytime than at nighttime and peaked around midday. At noon in summer, the LST of ‘Developed, High Intensity’ was 2.6 °C higher than that of ‘Developed, Medium Intensity’, and about 4.6 °C higher than that of "Developed, Open Space” and "Developed, Low Intensity”. Controlling the percent impervious surface in construction land at a relatively low level (e.g., below ~49%) could effectively alleviate the impacts of SUHI. Compared with GOES-R data, ECOSTRESS LST is suitable for monitoring the diurnal variations of intracity thermal environment at the subdistrict (or neighborhood) scale. Our study highlights the value of the combined use of geostationary satellite and ECOSTRESS LST in exploring the diurnal cycling of the SUHI, and can help inform urban planning and land-based climate mitigation policies in the context of climate change.

2. Abiotic decomposition of municipal solid waste under elevated temperature landfill conditions

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153685

Abstract

Abiotic decomposition of simulated Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) was investigated for thermal reactions that impact landfill gas components such as methane, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. The gas composition and temperature were monitored as a function of heating rate and time. The tests were conducted at 483 kPa (70 psig), 55 wt% moisture, and 30 to 60 W controlled heat input in the presence of biological inhibitors. The gas composition trends show that for heat inputs higher than 46 W, the CH4/CO2 ratio diverges from the initial value of 1.0 to as low as 0.2, correlated to a decrease in CH4 concentration. Major findings of the study include that the primary gas composition ratio (CH4/CO2) starts to reduce from the baseline value of 1.0 as the heating rate is increased from 30 W to 51 W and further declines at significantly higher rates beyond 51 W. The hydrogen evolution was directly proportional to the amount of CH4 available in the system. Low levels of CH4 (<25%) correspond to decreased H2 levels in the system (<5%) whereas injection of CH4 gas in the system correspond with a renewed H2 generation The study provides insights into the operational conditions such as available heat and moisture leading to changes in landfill gas ratios.

3. Neutral and ionizable per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the urban atmosphere: Occurrence, sources and transport

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153794

Abstract

In the atmosphere, the photodegradation of neutral per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (n-PFASs) is a source of ionizable PFASs (i-PFASs). However, they are not frequently simultaneously analyzed to study their transport and sources. In this study, n-PFASs and i-PFASs were simultaneously analyzed in the atmosphere of China, Japan and Malaysia to investigate the occurrence, seasonal variations, sources and transport. Results showed that n-PFASs ranged from 4.8 to 1400 pg m−3, with an average value of 170 pg m−3, and 8:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (8:2 FTOH) was the most abundant compound. i-PFASs ranged from 3.7 to 330 pg m−3, with an average value of 49 pg m−3, and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) had the highest concentration. Generally, airborne PFASs had a decreasing gradient from cities with high population density toward less industrialized sites. i-PFASs exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) seasonal variations, which were higher in the summer. 8:2 FTOH and 10:2 FTOH had significant (P < 0.05) positive correlations with perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorodecanoic acid, suggesting that they had same sources, such as co-emission and photodegradation of FTOHs. Urumqi and Selangor were far away from industry, and high percentages (>95%) but low concentrations of PFBA were found in these cities, indicating the long-range atmospheric transport of PFBA due to its high volatility. The Summer Monsoon may promote the transport of high concentrations of PFAS from coastal cities to inland cities.

4. Estimating changes in air pollutant levels due to COVID-19 lockdown measures based on a business-as-usual prediction scenario using data mining models: A case-study for urban traffic sites in Spain

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153786

Abstract

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments declared severe restrictions throughout 2020, presenting an unprecedented scenario of reduced anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants derived mainly from traffic sources. To analyze the effect of these restrictions derived from COVID-19 pandemic on air quality levels, relative changes in NO, NO2, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were calculated at urban traffic sites in the most populated Spanish cities over different periods with distinct restrictions in 2020. In addition to the changes calculated with respect to the observed air pollutant levels of previous years (2013–2019), relative changes were also calculated using predicted pollutant levels for the different periods over 2020 on a business-as-usual scenario using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models with meteorological and seasonal predictors. MLR models were selected among different data mining techniques (MLR, Random Forest (RF), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)), based on their higher performance and accuracy obtained from a leave-one-year-out cross-validation scheme using 2013–2019 data. A q-q mapping post-correction was also applied in all cases in order to improve the reliability of the predictions to reproduce the observed distributions and extreme events. This approach allows us to estimate the relative changes in the studied air pollutants only due to COVID-19 restrictions. The results obtained from this approach show a decreasing pattern for NOx, with the largest reduction in the lockdown period above −50%, whereas the increase observed for O3 contrasts with the NOx patterns with a maximum increase of 23.9%. The slight reduction in PM10 (−4.1%) and PM2.5 levels (−2.3%) during lockdown indicates a lower relationship with traffic sources. The developed methodology represents a simple but robust framework for exploratory analysis and intervention detection in air quality studies.

5. Big data-based urban greenness in Chinese megalopolises and possible contribution to air quality control

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153834

Abstract

Urban greenness is essential for people's daily lives, while its contribution to air quality control is unclear. In this study, Streetview big data of urban greenness and air quality data (Air Quality Index, PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, CO) from 206 monitoring stations from 27 provincial capital cities in China were analyzed. The national averages for the sky, ground and middle-level (shrub and short trees) view greenness were 5.4%, 5.5%, and 15.4%, respectively, and the sky:ground:middle ratio was 2:2:6. Street-view/bird-view greenness ratio averaged at 1.1. Large inter-city variations were observed in all the greenness parameters, and the weak associations between all street-view parameters and bird-eye greenspace percentage (21%–73%) indicate their representatives of different aspects of green infrastructures. All air quality parameters were higher in winter than in summer, except O3. Over 90% of air quality variation could be explained by socioeconomics and geoclimates, suggesting that air quality control in China should first reduce efflux from social economics, while geoclimatic-oriented ventilation facilitation design is also critical. For different air quality components, greenness had most significant associations with NO2, O3 and CO, and street-view/bird-view ratio was the most powerful indicator of all greenness parameters. Pooled-data analysis at national level showed that street-view greenness was responsible for 2.3% of the air quality variations in the summer and 3.6% in the winter; however, when separated into different regions (North-South China; East-West China), the explaining power increased up to 16.2%. Increased NO2 was accompanied with decreased O3, indicating NO titration effect. The higher O3 aligned with the higher street-view greenness, showing the greenness-related precursor risk for O3 pollution. Our study manifested that big internet data could identify the association of greenness and air pollution from street view scale, which can favor urban greenness management and evaluation in other regions where street-view data are available.

6. Three-dimensional building morphology impacts on PM2.5 distribution in urban landscape settings in Zhejiang, China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154094

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) urban landscape patterns and building morphology are crucial for urban planning and essential for urban landscape functions. In this study, fixed and mobile monitoring sites were used to determine the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentrations in Hangzhou. Six 3D metrics were selected to analyze the response of PM2.5 pollution to landscape patterns and building morphology, while their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts' metrics were also analyzed to contrast the differences. A variance partitioning analysis (VPA) was performed to measure the combined and relative contribution of 3D and 2D metrics to the changes in PM2.5 concentrations. The results showed that: (1) on the 3D scale, forming a building pattern with a combination of different building heights can eliminate the accumulation of PM2.5; (2) on the 2D scale, fragmentation and decentralization of landscapes and building patches alleviate PM2.5 pollution; and (3) 3D building morphology indicators have the highest explanatory power (40.94%) for the changes of PM2.5 concentrations. It turns out that the explanatory power of 3D metrics for PM2.5 concentrations changes is much greater than that of 2D metrics. In addition, when compared to building morphology indicators from a single dimension, the combination of 2D and 3D metrics is better able to reflect urban PM2.5 pollution. The results of this study expand our understanding of how PM2.5 pollution responds to 2D and 3D metrics and provide useful information for urban planning.

7. 10 years long-term assessment on characterizing spatiotemporal trend and source apportionment of metal(loid)s in terrestrial soils along the west coast of South Korea

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154214

Abstract

Long-term trends in the spatial distributions and sources of metal(loid)s in soils adjacent to the west coastal areas of South Korea have been systematically investigated for 10 years (2010–2019). Monitoring in 17 sites clearly showed site- and region-specific distributions, being associated with land use type (significant differences, as road > agriculture > wild) (P < 0.05), rather than temporal variation. The great concentrations of all metal(loid)s were found near Lake Shihwa (LS) and Geum River (GG), near the road, indicating that transportation activity was the main source of metal(loid)s contamination in soil. Especially, Cd (0.5 mg kg−1), Hg (0.04 mg kg−1), Pb (65 mg kg−1), and Zn (184 mg kg−1), related to the transportation activity near the road, showed twice greater than other land use types, on average. The concentration of metal(loid)s in each site and with the same land use type did not greatly vary over the years, with no significant annual difference (P > 0.05). The degree of metal(loid)s contamination compared to the background levels was identified in the order of Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > As>Cd > Ni > Hg, with the contaminated hotspots mostly in LS or GG. The potential ecological risk was evidenced for Cd and Hg, but such a trend was temporally irregular over the years, indicating site-specificity. The sources of metal(loid)s were carefully determined as natural (20%), fuel combustion & agricultural pollution (43%), and vehicular emissions (37%) using the Positive Matrix Factorization model. The relative contribution of each source to contamination over the last decade was found to be similar, supporting that site-dependent lesser variation in metal(loid)s contamination in the coastal areas of South Korea. Overall, the distribution of metal(loid)s in the soil near the west coastal areas over the last decade largely depended on land use activities, and contamination degree was associated with non-point sources, such as transportation and fuel combustion.

11. PM2.5-bound organosulfates in two Eastern Mediterranean cities: The dominance of isoprene organosulfates

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134103

Abstract

PM2.5 samples were collected during 2017–2018 at two Eastern Mediterranean urban sites in Greece, Athens and Patra, in order to study the abundances, the seasonal trends, the sources and the possible impact of gas phase pollutants on organosulfate formation. Each of the studied groups, except that of aromatic organosulfates, presented higher concentrations in Patra compared to those measured in Athens, from 1.1 (nitro-oxy organosulfates) to 3.6 times (isoprene organosulfates). At both sites, isoprene organosulfates was the dominant group which accounted on average for more than 50% of the total measured organosulfates, with the contribution being more than 80% during summer. Strong seasonality was observed at both sites, regarding the isoprene organosulfates, with an almost 21-fold increase from winter to summer. The same pattern, but to a lesser extent, was also observed for monoterpenes organosulfates at both sites. Alkyl organosulfates followed an identical seasonal trend with the highest mean concentrations observed during spring followed by autumn. The seasonality of anthropogenic organosulfates, multisource organosulfates and nitro-oxy organosulfates differed among the two sites or presented a more compound-specific variation. The isoprene-epoxydiol pathway appeared to be the dominant pathway of isoprene transformation, with the compounds iOS211, iOS213 and iOS215 being the major isoprene organosulfate compounds at both sites. Organosulfate contribution to the concentration of particulate matter presented common variation at both sites, ranging from 0.20 ± 0.14% (winter) to 2.5 ± 1.2% (summer) and from 0.21 ± 0.13% (winter) to 5.0 ± 2.5% (summer) for Athens and Patra, respectively. The increased NOx levels in Athens, appeared to affect isoprene organosulfate formation as well as the formation of monoterpene and decalin nitro-oxy organosulfates. Principal component analysis followed by multiple linear regression analysis highlighted the dominance of isoprene organosulfates. In Athens, the possible impact of transportation emissions on the formation of monoterpene nitro-oxy organosulfates is indicated while the correlation of naphthalene organosulfates with low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons suggests that vehicle emissions may be a significant source. In Patra, the possible contribution of sea on methyl sulfate levels is denoted.

12. Wastewater treatment and emerging contaminants: Bibliometric analysis

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 133932

Abstract

In recent years, emerging contaminants have been found in the wastewater, surface water, and even drinking water, which should be treated to ensure the safety of our living environment. In this study, we provide a comprehensive summary of wastewater treatment and emerging contaminants research from 1998 to 2021 by using the bibliometric analysis. This study is conducted based on the Web of Science Core Collection Database. The bibliometix R-package, VOSviewer and CiteSpace software are used for bibliometric analysis and science mapping. A dataset of 10, 605 publications has been retrieved. The analysis results show that China has produced the most publications. China and the United States have the closest cooperation. Analysis of the most cited papers reveals that the purification or removal techniques such as ozonation or membrane filtration can effectively remove pharmaceutical compounds from the water environment. We also found that the efficient detection of emerging contaminants and the optimization of removal methods are current challenges. Finally, future research directions are discussed.

13. Urban heat island and thermal comfort of Esfahan City (Iran) during COVID-19 lockdown

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131498

Abstract

The Urban Heat Island (UHI), driven in part by urban green space transformation, and resulting in bioclimatic stress, is one of the major environmental problems facing cities today. A brief reprise in UHI severity is hypothesised to have occurred for many cities during COVID-19 lockdown, as a result of the marked reduction in individual and industrial activities. This study explores the UHI the city of Esfahan, one of the major metropolises of Iran, comparing the urban temperature for the period 20 March to 20 April 2020, the first lockdown period in Iran, with a long term mean for this month calculated from 2000 to 2019. During the lockdown period, the UHI effect covered a much smaller land area than in all prior years investigated. The land surface area which experienced heat stress reduced significantly during the lockdown period, and the total energy heating requirement (heat degree days) increased by 23,945.2° day calories compared to the long term average. These results demonstrate the significant changes in UHI and related variables during lockdown. While lockdown regulations are not sustainable in the long run, the improvements recorded demonstrate the potential to mitigate anthropogenic heating.

14. Inactivation of bacteria present in secondary municipal wastewater effluent using the hybrid effect of Fe–TiO2 catalyst

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131575

Abstract

A low-cost waste-driven visible active iron-titanium oxide composite was fabricated for the treatment of real municipal wastewater. The structured composite was characterized using morphological and spectroscopic techniques such as FE-SEM, XRD, UV-DRS, indicating that the fabrication procedure could uniformly coat the TiO2 particles over the clay-supported composite spheres. The iron-titanium oxide composite was efficient in introducing a hybrid effect of photocatalysis and photo-Fenton that is being facilitated by the use of waste foundry sand (WFS) and waste fly ash (WFA) (both natural sources of iron) with a TiO2 layer on the outer surface. The main emphasis was given to the disinfection of bacteria along with the degradation of organic matter in terms of BOD and COD present in municipal wastewater. This hybrid technology showed 100% inactivation of bacteria with optimized parameters such as 0.9 g L−1 of H2O2 dose, 5.5 pH, and 100% surface area covered with the catalyst in 60 min of treatment time. 54% and 40% reduction in BOD and COD was also observed in 60 min. The kinetic rate constant was found to be 2 times higher in the hybrid process as compared to the individual process. The damage to the cell wall was confirmed by potassium ion leakage and FE-SEM analysis. Fe–TiO2 composites demonstrated excellent stability even after recycling 35 times, indicating the lasting durability of the composites. The findings of this study demonstrate the possibility for waste materials to be used as a viable approach for the bacterial inactivation application with the potential of the field-scale application.

15. Accurate prediction of water quality in urban drainage network with integrated EMD-LSTM model

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131724

Abstract

Quickly and accurately grasping the water quality in the drainage network is essential for the management and early warning of the urban water environment. Modeling-based detection methods enable fast and reagent-free water quality detection based on inexpensive multi-source data, which is cleaner and more sustainable than traditional chemical-reaction-based detection methods. But the unsatisfactory accuracy limits their practical application. This study proposes an integrated EMD-LSTM model that combines the data preprocessing module centered on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and the long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network prediction module to improve the accuracy of the modeling-based detection methods. In the integrated EMD-LSTM model, EMD allows retaining outliers and utilizing data on non-aligned moments, which contributes to capturing data patterns, while powerful nonlinear mapping and learning ability of LSTM neural network enables the time series prediction of water quality. As a result, the EMD-LSTM has achieved the highest R2 values (0.961, 0.9384, 0.9575, 0.9441, 0.9502) and the lowest RMSE values (8.3112, 6.7795, 0.2691, 2.6239, 1.4894) in the prediction of COD, BOD5, TP, TN, NH3–N when compared with the integrated models formed by combining other preprocessing procedures (i.e., traditional operation, short-time Fourier transform) and data-driven forecasting algorithms (i.e., partial least squares regression, gradient boosting regression, deep neural network). This study provides enlightenment for improving the accuracy of modeling-based detection methods, which has driven the development of water quality detection technology towards cleaner and more sustainable.

16. Real-time chemical composition of ambient fine aerosols and related cytotoxic effects in human lung epithelial cells in an urban area

Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112792

Abstract

Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 μm (PM1) in the atmosphere, especially that which is emitted from anthropogenic sources, can induce considerable negative effects on the cardiopulmonary system. To investigate the chemical emission characteristics and organic sources in Yuen Long (Hong Kong), both offline and online approaches for PM1 samples were applied by filter-based samplers and a Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM), respectively. The toxicological effects on human A549 lung alveolar epithelial cells were investigated, and associations between cytotoxicity and organic sources and compositions were evaluated. The organics from the Q-ACSM measurement were the largest contributor to submicron aerosols in both seasons of our study, and the mass fraction was higher in winter (60%) than it was in autumn (46%). Regarding organic sources, the mass fraction of hydrocarbon-like organics (HOA) increased from 7% in autumn to 38% in winter, whereas cooking organics (COA) decreased from 30% in autumn to 18% in winter, and oxygenated organics (OOA) decreased from 63% to 45%. Organic compounds contributed more during pollution episodes, and more secondary ions were formed by means of the oxidation process. Oxidative and inflammatory responses in A549 cells were found with PM1 exposures; the differences in chemical compositions resulted in the higher cytotoxicity in winter than autumn. The cooking organic aerosol in residential area was significantly correlated with cell inflammation. Both elemental carbon and specific inorganic ions (SO42− and Mg2+) contributed to the intracellular cytotoxicity. This study demonstrated that specific atmospheric particulate matter chemical properties and sources can trigger distinct cell reactions; the inorganic ions from cooking emissions cannot be disregarded in terms of their pulmonary health risks in residential areas.

17. Enhanced simultaneous partial nitrification and denitrification performance of aerobic granular sludge via tapered aeration in sequencing batch reactor for treating low strength and low COD/TN ratio municipal wastewater

Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112743

Abstract

The aerobic granular sludge simultaneous partial nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (AGS-SPNDPR) process was carried out via tapered aeration in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating low strength and low COD/TN ratio municipal wastewater. The results showed that aerobic granular sludge was successfully cultivated with good sedimentation performance when treating the municipal wastewater. Meanwhile, the median granule size increased to 270 (R1) and 257 (R2) μm on day 80. The excellent removal performance of COD (92%) and NH4+-N (95%) were achieved under different aeration modes, while the higher TN removal efficiency (76%) was achieved by tapered aeration. The accumulation of NO2−-N in R2 indicated that the tapered aeration was beneficial to achieve simultaneously partial nitrification and denitrification. Meanwhile, the high-efficiency phosphorus (95%) removal was realized via additional carbon source, and SPNDPR process was formed under tapered aeration. The bacterial community analysis indicated denitrifying glycogen-accumulating organisms (DGAOs) Candidatus_Competibacter and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas were more effectively enriched via tapered aeration, while phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) Candidatus_Accumulibacter were effectively enriched under additional organic carbon. AOB, denitrifying bacteria and PAOs were simultaneously enriched by tapered aeration and additional carbon source, which was beneficial to nutrients removal. This study might be conducive to the application of AGS-SPNDPR system for treating low strength and low COD/TN ratio municipal wastewater under tapered aeration.

MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP

1. The utilization of alkaline wastes in passive carbon capture and sequestration: Promises, challenges and environmental aspects

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153553

Abstract

Alkaline wastes have been the focus of many studies as they act as CO2 sinks and have the potential to offset emissions from mining and steelmaking industries. Passive carbonation of alkaline wastes mimics natural silicate weathering and provides a promising alternative pathway for CO2 capture and storage as carbonates, requiring marginal human intervention when compared to ex-situ carbonation. This review summarizes the extant research that has investigated the passive carbonation of alkaline wastes, namely ironmaking and steelmaking slag, mine tailings and demolition wastes, over the past two decades. Here we report different factors that affect passive carbonation to address challenges that this process faces and to identify possible solutions. We identify avenues for future research such as investigating how passive carbonation affects the surrounding environment through interaction with the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Future research should also consider economic analyses to provide investors with an in-depth understanding of passive carbonation techniques. Based on the reviewed materials, we conclude that passive carbonation can be an important contributor to climate change mitigation strategies, and its potential can be intensified by applying simple waste management practices.

2. Electrocatalytic oxidation of low concentration cefotaxime sodium wastewater using Ti/SnO2–RuO2 electrode: Feasibility analysis and degradation mechanism

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134146

Abstract

In this research, Ti/SnO2–RuO2 stable anode was successfully prepared by thermal decomposition method, and low concentration cefotaxime sodium (CFX) was degraded by green and sustainable electrocatalytic oxidation technology. The electrocatalytic activity and stability of the Ti/SnO2–RuO2 coating electrode were studied according to the polarization curve of oxygen and chlorine evolution. The effects of current density, initial concentration, pH, electrolyte concentration, and other technological parameters on the degradation efficiency were discussed. Orthogonal experiment results indicated that when the current density was 25 mA cm−2, concentration of electrolyte was 5 mM and the pH value was 7, the best CFX removal rate of 86.33% could be obtained. The degradation efficiency of electrocatalytic oxidation was discussed through electrochemical analysis. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze the different inlet and outlet stages before and after the degradation of CFX, and the possible degradation process was discussed. Therefore, the electrocatalytic oxidation of Ti/SnO2–RuO2 electrode was a clean and efficient technology, which could be widely used in the treatment of CFX wastewater.

3. Flooding and drainage induced abiotic reactions control metal solubility in soil of a contaminated industrial site

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134032

Abstract

Intense industrialization has led to the increasing leaching risk of metals into groundwater at heavily polluted industrial sites. However, metal dissolution in polluted industrial soils has been neither fully investigated nor quantified before. In this study, the dissolution of Zn, Ni, and Cu in soil from a heavily contaminated industrial site during a flooding-drainage period was investigated by sequential extraction, geochemical modelling, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The results showed a steady decrease in metal solubility during both reduction and oxidation stages. During reduction, with limited decrease in Eh (>100 mV), formation of carbonate precipitates rather than sulfide precipitates and adsorption on soil solids was responsible for Zn and Ni dissolution, whereas bound to soil organic matter (SOM) and iron oxides dominated Cu dissolution, due to its lower concentration and higher affinity to SOM and iron oxides compared to Zn and Ni. During oxidation, the acidity caused by ferrous oxidation was buffered by calcite dissolution, while metal precipitation ceased and adsorption on soil surface controlled metal solubility. The metal solubility and speciation during the flooding-drainage process were quantitatively predicted by geochemical model. The findings demonstrate that due to high metal concentrations and weak microbial effect in the industrial soil, metal release was largely regulated by abiotic reactions rather than biotic reactions, which is somehow different from that of the wetland or rice field soils.

4. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons-contaminated soil: Analysis based on Chinese patents

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134173

Abstract

Increasing soil petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) pollution have caused world-wide concerns. The removal of PHs from soils mainly involves physical, chemical, biological processes and their combinations. To date, most reviews in this field based on research articles, but limited papers focused on the integration of remediation technologies from the perspective of patents. In this study, 20-years Chinese patents related to the remediation of soil PHs were comprehensively analyzed. It showed an increasing number of patent applications and the patents’ quantity were positively correlated with Chinese GDP over the years, suggesting the more the economy developed the more environmental problems and corresponding solutions emerged. In addition, chemical technologies were mostly used in a combination to achieve faster and better effects, while the physical technologies were often used alone due to high costs. In all PHs remediation techniques, bacteria-based bioremediation was the most used from 2000 to 2019. Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the most used bacteria for PHs treatment because these taxa were widely harboring functions such as biosurfactant production and hydrocarbon degradation. The future research on joint technologies combining microbial and physicochemical ones for better remediation effect and application are highly encouraged.

5. Advanced electro-Fenton degradation of a mixture of pharmaceutical and steel industrial wastewater by pallet-activated-carbon using three-dimensional electrode reactor

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134074

Abstract

In the present work, a three-dimensional electrode reactor (3Der) using pallet activated carbon (PAC), as particle electrodes, was investigated to degrade non-biodegradable organic pollutants in pharmaceutical wastewater and steel industry wastewater. The effect of operating parameters, such as pH, electrode distance, O2 flow rate, and current density was investigated. The TOC removal efficiency in 3Der was achieved at the highest mineralization yield of 94.1% after 180 min electrolysis, which was 10–19% higher than the two-dimensional electrode reactor (2Der). The higher performance of the 3Der can be attributed to the indirect and direct oxidation mechanisms. The impact of supporting electrolytes was decreased in order as chloride > nitrate > sulfate. The morphology of sludge and the presence of Fe(OH)3 after Fenton-oxidation were investigated. 3Der system improved biodegradability of pharmaceutical wastewater after electro-Fenton treatment at a PW/SIW ratio of 3:1 (BOD5/COD = 0.6). Hence, the mechanism of 3Der/PAC, as particle electrodes was also proposed. 3Der with PAC particle electrodes using steel industry wastewater as a catalyst is an exciting technique for remediation of organic contaminated pharmaceutical wastewater.

6. Roasted modified lead-zinc tailings using alkali as activator and its mitigation of Cd contaminated: Characteristics and mechanisms

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134029

Abstract

To comprehensively reuse lead-zinc tailings, leaching residue (LR) of solid by-products was produced after the recovery of valuable metals. This study provided a "waste-ecology” strategy by a simple, inexpensive method of roasting prepared highly active silicon modified tailing (HAST) to eliminate the environment risk of LR, and investigates performance and mechanism of HAST as sorbents and passivators. The results indicated that HAST possesses high pH, abundant mineral content, microporous structure and high stability. The adsorption kinetic experiment revealed that chemisorption is the main reaction and the Qm of Cd via Langmuir model is 72.75 mg/g. As further demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the Cd was adsorbed onto the HAST surface successfully, with the main interaction mechanisms involving ion exchange, complexation, precipitation and electrostatic interaction. Besides, the soil incubation experiment results showed that HAST had positive effects on exchange fractions (Cd) converting to stable fractions in soil, which modifies Cd migration and transformation, HAST added into soil decreased the DTPA-Cd by 4.7%–8.1%, 5.9–9.8% and 9.1%–13.4%, respectively, in different stages, as compared with the control. Therefore, this study provides a novel strategy to address LR recycling, and the relevant, wastewater and soil treatment, which has high practicability for industrial applications.

7. Tailoring Fe2O3–Al2O3 catalyst structure and activity via hydrothermal synthesis for carbon nanotubes and hydrogen production from polyolefin plastics

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134148

Abstract

Fe2O3–Al2O3 catalysts applied for conversion of polyolefin plastic waste into multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and H2 are typically produced by impregnation, co-precipitation or sol-gel synthesis at atmospheric pressure and temperatures below 100 °C. This study utilized hydrothermal conditions and established the role of precipitating agents (urea, N-methylurea and N,N′-dimethylurea) on properties and catalytic activity of Fe2O3–Al2O3 catalysts (Fe-u, Fe-mu and Fe-dmu, respectively). The precipitating agent played a key role in tailoring the properties, such as crystallization degree, surface area and reducibility. The precipitating agents influenced the yield and outer diameters of MWCNTs but did not affect graphitization degree. Among the synthesized catalysts, Fe-u had the largest surface area and preferential formation of the highly reducible α-Fe2O3 crystalline phase. As a result, Fe-u had the highest activity during conversion of pyrolysis gas from low-density polyethylene (LDPE) into MWCNTs, yielding 0.91 g·g−1-catalyst MWCNTs at 800 °C as compared to 0.42 and 0.14 g·g−1-catalyst using Fe-dmu and Fe-mu, respectively. Fe-dmu favored the growth of MWCNTs with smaller outer diameters. Fe-u demonstrated high efficiency during operation using a continuous flow of pyrolysis gas from a mixture of polyolefins (70 wt% polypropylene, 6 wt% LDPE and 24 wt% high density polyethylene) producing 4.28 g·g−1-catalyst MWCNTs at 3.2% plastic conversion efficiency and a stable H2 flow for 155 min (25–32 vol%). The obtained data demonstrate that the selection of an appropriate precipitating agent for hydrothermal synthesis allows for the production of highly active Fe2O3–Al2O3 catalysts for the upcycling of polyolefin plastic waste into MWCNTs and H2.

8. Emerging bismuth-based direct Z-scheme photocatalyst for the degradation of organic dye and antibiotic residues

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134227

Abstract

Organic dye and antibiotic residues are some of the key substances that can contaminate the environment due to their wide usage in various industries and modern medicine. The degradation of these substances present in waterbodies is essential while contemplating human health. Photocatalysts (PSs) are promising materials that develop highly reactive species instantly by simple solar energy conversion for degrading the organic dye and antibiotic residues and converting them into nontoxic products. Among numerous semiconductors, the bismuth (Bi)-containing PS has received great attention due to its strong sunlight absorption, facile preparation, and high photostability. Owing to the technology advancement and demerits of the traditional methods, a Bi-containing direct Z-scheme PS has been developed for efficient photogenerated charge carrier separation and strong redox proficiency. In this review, a synthetic Bi-based Z-scheme heterojunction that mimics natural photosynthesis is described, and its design, fabrication methods, and applications are comprehensively reviewed. Specifically, the first section briefly explains the role of various semiconductors in the environmental applications and the importance of the Bi-based materials for constructing the Z-scheme photocatalytic systems. In the successive section, overview of Z-scheme PS are concisely discussed. The fourth and fifth sections extensively explain the degradation of the organic dyes and antibiotics utilizing the Bi-based direct Z-scheme heterojunction. Eventually, the conclusions and future perspectives of this emerging research field are addressed. Overall, this review is potentially useful for the researchers involved in the environmental remediation field as a collection of up-to-date research articles for the fabrication of the Bi-containing direct Z-scheme PS.

9. Measurement and analysis of ecological pressure due to industrial development in the Yangtze River economic belt from 2010 to 2018

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 353, 15 June 2022, 131614

Abstract

The main aim of the study is to measure the ecological pressure due to industrial development in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), which accounts for half of China's industrial output. In contrast to previous empirical studies, we test the ecological pressure on the YREB due to industrial development by using a more comprehensive environmental quality model named the ecological footprint. Meanwhile, a panel regression model is further established to search the influencing factors relating to the YREB's industrial ecological footprint. Although the YERB still faces the tremendous ecological pressure brought by industrial development, the conditions of ecological environment deterioration and resource depletion have been improved. The ecological footprint of industrial added value in various provinces and cities has generally shown a downward trend, and the ecological benefits of industrial development are continuously improving. The improvement of the ecological benefits of industrial development in the YREB now mainly depends on environmental regulation. To achieve the unity of economic benefits and ecological benefits, the government should design related policies, as discussed in the conclusion.

10. Deep learning model based on urban multi-source data for predicting heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr) in industrial sewer networks

Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 432, 15 June 2022, 128732

Abstract

The high concentrations of heavy metals in municipal industrial sewer networks will seriously impact the microorganisms of the activated sludge in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), thus deteriorating the effluent quality and destroying the stability of sewage treatment. Therefore, timely prediction and early warning of heavy metal concentrations in industrial sewer networks is crucial. However, due to the complex sources of heavy metals in industrial sewer networks, traditional physical modeling and linear methods cannot establish an accurate prediction model. Herein, we developed a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) neural network model based on a deep learning algorithm for predicting the concentrations of heavy metals in industrial sewer networks. To train the GRU model, we used low-cost and easy-to-obtain urban multi-source data, including socio-environmental indicator data, air environmental indicator data, water quantity indicator data, and easily measurable water quality indicator data. The model was applied to predict the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cr) in the sewer networks of an industrial area in southern China. The results are compared with the commonly used Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. In this study, it was shown that the GRU had better prediction performance for Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cr concentrations, with the average R2 significantly increased by 12.35%, 11.94%, 9.21%, and 8.13%, respectively, compared to ANN predictions. The sensitivity analysis based on Shapley (SHAP) values revealed that conductivity (σ), temperature (T), pH, and sewage flow (Flow) contributed significantly to the prediction results of the model. Furthermore, the three input variables including air pressure (AP), land area (A), and population (Pop.) were removed without affecting the prediction performance of the model, which maximized the modeling efficiency and reduced the operational cost. This study provides an economical and feasible technical method for early warning of abnormal heavy metal concentrations in urban industrial sewer networks.

11. A review on microbial-integrated techniques as promising cleaner option for removal of chromium, cadmium and lead from industrial wastewater

Journal of Water Process Engineering, Volume 47, June 2022, 102727

Abstract

Industrial and developmental activities have raised heavy metal loads in wastewater and their inappropriate treatment before disposal causes grave dilemma to the environment. Chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are highly toxic heavy metals and extensively used hence, excessively generated with disposing effluent from the industries like paint, battery, electroplating, tannery, paper and pulp, textile, smelting and mining has raised the public attention owing to health concerns. Microbial-remediation processes are considered as environmentally benign options and their integration with existing treatment techniques can construct advanced types of systems in terms of their cost and efficiency due to their synergistic action. These microbial-integrated techniques are gaining popularity these days. There are varieties of microbial-integrated strategy which has been investigated carefully for efficient removal of Cr, Cd, and Pb and has been published in leading journals. In this review, we have critically discussed the microbial–integrated strategies and recent advances in microbial-integrated techniques for proficient removal of Cr, Pb, and Cd from industrial wastewater in a cheaper and cleaner way. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the integrated system also have been discussed in this review. The microbial integrated systems such as bioelectrochemical, photo-bioelectrochemical, nano-microbial, and constructed wetland showed excellent performance and have tremendous potential for large scale exploitation. To conclude, microbial-integrated techniques proved as excellent remedial options for Cr, Pb and Cd contaminated wastewater that has been discussed well in this review. These integrated processes may be cost-effective, viable, more efficient and less time taking than the existing techniques and have intense opportunity.

12. Co-pyrolysis of industrial sludge and rice straw: Synergistic effects of biomass on reaction characteristics, biochar properties and heavy metals solidification

Fuel Processing Technology, Volume 230, 1 June 2022, 107211

Abstract

Co-pyrolysis of sludge and biomass was conducted to produce biochar with heavy metals solidification. The synergistic coupling mechanism and the surface functional groups and pore structure characteristics of co-pyrolytic biochar were studied. The solidification characteristics and mechanism of heavy metals were also investigated. Biomass composition in the co-pyrolysis system provided energy, solidified heavy metals and improved product quality. Compared with the weighted calculated value of two individual materials, the secondary decomposition process of co-pyrolysis was prolonged by approximately 80 °C and enhanced by 29%. Osingle bondH bond, Csingle bondH bond, and Cdouble bondO bond of co-pyrolytic biochar obtained at 500 °C increased significantly, and the carbon network structure and skeleton were enhanced, and the specific surface area increased by 102.8%, comparing with that of sludge biochar. The solidification effect of Cu and Cd in co-pyrolytic biochar was 29% and 50% higher than that in sludge biochar, respectively. The leaching rates of Cu and Cd in co-pyrolytic biochar were only 38.22% and 39.54% of that from sludge biochar. This study demonstrated that high-quality biochar with low heavy metal risk can be obtained by co-pyrolysis technology, which provides a potential way for the comprehensive utilization of industrial sludge and biomass.

13. Industrial site water exchange network synthesis considering multiple quality constraints and water headers

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 312, 15 June 2022, 114890

Abstract

This work aims to extend the previous Pinch Analysis framework to the industrial site material recycling network with site headers synthesis from single quality to multiple qualities. The analysis provides guided resources management strategy in any eco-industrial park to reduce the reliance on raw resources that are extracted from the environment. The Pinch Point(s) are first identified for the overall network using the Material Recovery Pinch Diagram for all the qualities. The guideline for the cross-plant material sources transfer is then built upon the concept of the Pinch Point(s) for all the qualities to minimise the cross-plant source transfer or a number of connections. An iterative header targeting framework is then proposed to determine the flowrates and the qualities of the headers. Two case studies, which have single and multiple qualities Total Site water recycling network, are used to demonstrate the proposed framework, comparing results obtained using direct integration and centralised headers. The single quality case results in 4.1% lower fresh resource intake compared to without cross-transfer, while the multiple qualities case could have 5.3% lower fresh resources for two and three plants scenarios. This framework provides a proper analysis of the problem, which allows users to gain insights on the effective cross-plant source transfer schemes with headers constraint by resource qualities.

14. Marine biopharmaceutical industrial policies in China: Evolution, characteristics, and challenges

Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 225, 15 June 2022, 106224

Abstract

Marine biopharmaceutical industry (MBI) is an important part of the marine biological resources development. This study outlines the evolution of China's MBI policies since 1978, which can be divided into four stages: the cultivation period (1978–2003), the initial development period (2004–2010), the rapid development period (2011–2015), and the High-quality development period (2016–present). However, there are still challenges in policy formulation and implementation, including a lack of systematic and specialized industrial planning, insufficient incentives for independent innovation, incomplete Industry-University-Research cooperation, imperfect environmental regulation, and inefficient policy implementation. Moreover, environmental issues in the exploitation of marine biological resources and structural overcapacity in marine strategic emerging industries are discussed in this study and policy recommendations are given. The results of this study can provide a reference for marine resource development and other strategic emerging marine industries.

15. Flooding and drainage induced abiotic reactions control metal solubility in soil of a contaminated industrial site

Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134032

Abstract

Intense industrialization has led to the increasing leaching risk of metals into groundwater at heavily polluted industrial sites. However, metal dissolution in polluted industrial soils has been neither fully investigated nor quantified before. In this study, the dissolution of Zn, Ni, and Cu in soil from a heavily contaminated industrial site during a flooding-drainage period was investigated by sequential extraction, geochemical modelling, and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The results showed a steady decrease in metal solubility during both reduction and oxidation stages. During reduction, with limited decrease in Eh (>100 mV), formation of carbonate precipitates rather than sulfide precipitates and adsorption on soil solids was responsible for Zn and Ni dissolution, whereas bound to soil organic matter (SOM) and iron oxides dominated Cu dissolution, due to its lower concentration and higher affinity to SOM and iron oxides compared to Zn and Ni. During oxidation, the acidity caused by ferrous oxidation was buffered by calcite dissolution, while metal precipitation ceased and adsorption on soil surface controlled metal solubility. The metal solubility and speciation during the flooding-drainage process were quantitatively predicted by geochemical model. The findings demonstrate that due to high metal concentrations and weak microbial effect in the industrial soil, metal release was largely regulated by abiotic reactions rather than biotic reactions, which is somehow different from that of the wetland or rice field soils.

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