Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 27-2022
Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 27-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
- Khung tối ưu hóa đa mục tiêu mới thực hiện cơ sở hạ tầng đô thị xanh-xám dưới tác động của biến đổi khí hậu.
- Các biến thể không gian-thời gian của sự thoát hơi nước trên cạn trên khắp Trung Quốc từ năm 2000 đến năm 2019.
- Rủi ro môi trường của khẩu trang dùng một lần trong đại dịch COVID-19: Những thách thức và quản lý.
- Xử lý tổng hợp chất thải thực phẩm với nước thải và bùn thải: Phân tích năng lượng và khí thải carbon với các tác động kinh tế.
- Phương pháp tiếp cận đánh giá vòng đời cảnh quan đa sản phẩm để đánh giá tiềm năng giảm nhẹ khí hậu của địa phương.
- Khử cacbon trong các công ty điện lực quốc doanh: Bài học từ phân tích so sánh
-Đánh giá tiềm năng thu hồi năng lượng và phân tích tác động môi trường của chất thải đối với các phương án năng lượng sử dụng đánh giá vòng đời.
- Xử lý nhiệt hóa chất thải khẩu trang dùng một lần COVID-19 hàng ngày: Tiềm năng phát điện và phân tích tác động môi trường.
- Phản ứng của thương hiệu đối với sự hỗn loạn của môi trường: Một khuôn khổ và các đề xuất để chống lại, phục hồi và tái tạo
Về môi trường đô thị
- Ảnh hưởng của khí hậu địa phương đến các yếu tố chi phối và kích thước ngưỡng của hiệu quả làm mát của các công viên đô thị.
- Khung phương pháp luận cho các nhà máy xử lý nước thải cung cấp dịch vụ mở rộng: Đánh đổi kinh tế và quyết định công nghệ.
- Mô hình không gian và độ nhạy ôzôn của cacbonyl ở thể khí tại 11 khu đô thị ở đông nam Trung Quốc.
- Khám phá mức tiêu thụ kháng sinh giữa các lưu vực thành thị và cận đô thị bằng cách sử dụng cả thuốc gốc và các chất chuyển hóa có liên quan trong dịch tễ học dựa trên nước thải.
- Kiểm soát quy trình để cải thiện hiệu suất khử nước của bùn thải dựa trên quá trình thủy phân nhiệt hỗ trợ khung xương cacbon.
- Sự tiến hóa quang hóa của không khí trong môi trường đô thị nhiệt đới của Ấn Độ: Một nghiên cứu dựa trên mô hình.
- Đánh giá hiệu suất của hệ thống pin nhiên liệu oxit rắn sử dụng khí sinh học để xử lý chất thải rắn đô thị.
- Thích ứng với biến đổi khí hậu: Một nghiên cứu về thực hành quy hoạch và quản lý nước đô thị trong khu vực.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Loại bỏ chất ô nhiễm hiệu quả và tính linh hoạt của vi sinh vật dưới độ dốc muối cao của hệ thống xử lý nước thải mỏ dầu.
- Trao đổi không khí - đất và các rủi ro do parafin clo hóa chuỗi ngắn và chuỗi trung bình gây ra: Nghiên cứu điển hình tại một khu vực bị ô nhiễm ở Trung Quốc.
-Loại bỏ amoniac khỏi nước thải công nghiệp bằng cách sử dụng oxit zirconium và vật liệu nano graphene-oxit.
- Chất xúc tác Fe-zeolit để ozon hóa nước thải giấy và bột giấy cho nguồn nước bền vững.
- Loại bỏ các kim loại nặng độc hại từ nước ô nhiễm công nghiệp bằng cách sử dụng hydrophytes
- Tích tụ công nghiệp và phát thải khí SO2 công nghiệp ở 285 thành phố của Trung Quốc: Bằng chứng từ nhiều loại kết tụ.
- Xây dựng SnO2 / g-C3N4 một hợp chất nano hiệu quả để phân hủy quang xúc tác của amoxicillin và nước thải dược phẩm.
- Hướng tới xử lý nước thải bền vững: Ảnh hưởng của sắt, kẽm và nhôm làm cực dương kết hợp với cầu muối đến hiệu suất của pin nhiên liệu vi sinh
- Dòng chảy khối lượng, sự làm giàu và các tác động môi trường tiềm tàng của thủy ngân trong nhà máy xi măng tiền nhiệt luyện sơ bộ sử dụng nhiều chất thải công nghiệp và khai thác.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. A novel multi-objective optimization framework for urban green-gray infrastructure implementation under impacts of climate change
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153954
Frequent urban flooding disasters can cause severe economic and property losses. Accordingly, the construction of sponge city has become critical to alleviating urban flooding. However, the functional and structural integration of Green Infrastructure (GI) and Gray Drainage Facility (GDF) is still a matter of concern. This study proposed a novel implementation framework for GI and GDF synchronization optimization (G-GSOIF) based on the SWMM and SUSTAIN models, and used data from Beilin District in Xi'an, China to verify the effects. The results show that the spatiotemporal integrated optimization design of GI and GDF proves to be effective in stormwater management. The total investment was reduced by 16.7% and economic benefit was increased by 15.4% based on disaster risk control, and the utilization rate of rainwater resources exceeded 40%. The Staged optimization model (SSOM) based on the SUSTAIN model established in the G-GSOIF was demonstrated to effectively cope with the impact of future climate change by adjusting and optimizing the design scheme dynamically in different simulation scenarios. Integrated LID (I-LID) measures are conducive for simulation of large catchment areas, and have the same implementation effect as distributed LID measures. The results of this study could support decision-making for urban stormwater management and sponge city construction.
2. Spatial-temporal variations of terrestrial evapotranspiration across China from 2000 to 2019
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153951
Terrestrial evapotranspiration (ET) refers to a key process in the hydrological cycle by which water is transferred from the Earth's surface to lower atmosphere. With spatiotemporal variations, ET plays a crucial role in the global ecosystem and affects vegetation distribution and productivity, climate, and water resources. China features a complex, diverse natural environment, leading to high spatiotemporal heterogeneity in ET and climatic variables. However, past and future ET trends in China remain largely unexplored. Thus, by using MOD16 products and meteorological datasets, this study examined the spatiotemporal variations of ET in China from 2000 to 2019 and analyzed what is behind changes, and explored future ET trends. Climate variation in China from 2000 to 2019 was statistically significant and had a remarkable impact on ET. Average annual ET increased at a rate of 5.3746 mm yr−1 (P < 0.01) during the study period. The main drivers of the trend are increasing precipitation and wind speed. The increase in ET can also be explained to some extent by increasing temperature, decreasing sunshine duration and relative humidity. The zonation results show that the increase in temperature, wind speed, and precipitation and the decrease in relative humidity had large and positive effects on ET growth, and the decrease in sunshine duration had either promoting or inhibiting effects in different agricultural regions. Pixel-based variations in ET exhibited an overall increasing trend and obvious spatial volatility. The Hurst exponent indicates that the future trend of ET in China is characterized by significant anti-persistence, with widely distributed areas expected to experience a decline in ET. These findings improve the understanding of the role of climate variability in hydrological processes, and the ET variability in question will ultimately affect the climate system.
3. Environmental risks of disposable face masks during the pandemic of COVID-19: Challenges and management
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 153880
Since the COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020, face mask (FM) has been recognized as an effective measure to reduce the infection, increasing its consumption across the world. However, the large amount of at-home FM usage changed traditional medical waste management practices, lack of improper management. Currently, few studies estimate FM consumption at a global scale, not to say a comprehensive investigation on the environmental risks of FM from a life cycle perspective. Therefore, global FM consumption and its associated environmental risks are clarified in the present study. Our result shows that 449.5 billion FMs were consumed from January 2020 to March 2021, with an average of 59.4 FMs per person worldwide. This review also provides a basis to understand the environmental risk of randomly disposed of FM and highlights the urgent requirement for the attention of FMs waste management to prevent pollution in the near future.
4. How do heterogeneous R&D investments affect China's green productivity: Revisiting the Porter hypothesis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 154090
Currently, China's environmental pollution control investment and R&D investment have increased at a remarkable speed, exceeding the GDP growth rate. Against this background, determining the impact of different orientations of R&D investment on green total-factor productivity (GTFP) is essential for overcoming the dual dilemma of resource depletion and environmental degradation. By applying the perpetual inventory method (PIM), meta-frontier DEA method and mediation effect test methods, this paper empirically tests the effects and mechanisms of environmentally induced R&D (ER&D) and traditional R&D (TR&D) on promoting GTFP during 2004–2019 in China at the provincial level. The results show that (1) ER&D investment has significantly promoted the growth of GTFP, while TR&D's promoting effects on GTFP are not significant; (2) ER&D promotes the growth of GTFP through the three channels of emission reduction, clean energy consumption, and green technology progress; and (3) from the perspective of regional heterogeneity, ER&D's promoting effects on GTFP in the eastern provinces are higher than the central and western provinces, and the promoting effects in the northern provinces are higher than in the southern provinces. From the perspective of pollution degree heterogeneity, ER&D's promotion of GTFP shows an inverted U-shaped characteristic as the pollution level increases. This means that, in the process of China's environmental governance, it is necessary to increase ER&D investment and guide green innovation to serve pollution control to achieve sustainable and high-quality economic development.
5. Integrated treatment of food waste with wastewater and sewage sludge: Energy and carbon footprint analysis with economic implications
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 825, 15 June 2022, 154052
Food waste (FW) is a primary constituent of solid waste and its adequate management is a global challenge. Instead of disposal in landfills, integrated treatment of FW with wastewater (WW) can diminish both environmental and economic burdens. Utilizing steady-state modelling and life cycle assessment techniques, this study investigated the prospects of FW integration with biological WW treatment in terms of WW treatment performance, net energy and carbon footprint and economics of the process. The explored scenarios include co-disposal and treatment with WW by using FW disposers and anaerobic co-digestion with sewage sludge in Hong Kong. Compared to the existing WW and FW treatment, the integrated scenarios significantly improved the energy balance (~83–126%), net greenhouse gas emissions (~90%), and economics of operation, with permissible impact on WW treatment performance. Therefore, utilizing the surplus capacity of the existing WW treatment facilities, these integrated scenarios are a promising solution for sustainable development.
6. Wastewater-based monitoring of 2-fluoro-deschloroketamine abuse from 2019 to 2021 in a southern Chinese province
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 826, 20 June 2022, 154191
2-fluoro-deschloroketamine (FDCK) is a ketamine (KET) analog and new psychoactive substance that has appeared on the drug market in Europe and China in the past few years. The substance has been recently listed as a controlled drug by the narcotics control authority of China. In this work, FDCK and its metabolite nor-fluoro-deschloroketmaine (N-FDCK) in wastewater were analyzed for the first time to monitor FDCK abuse in a southern Chinese province that used to be a major producer and consumer of ketamine. For comparison, KET and its metabolite, nor-ketamine (N-KET) were monitored simultaneously. The concentration ratios between FDCK and N-FDCK were not statistically different from those of KET and N-KET. The average FDCK loads in the province in 2019 were higher than KET loads in most major cities in China in 2014 (when KET abuse hit its peak in the country). Rough estimation of FDCK and KET consumption revealed that FDCK was the predominant synthetic drug in the province in 2019, indicating rapid spread of the substance since its first appearance on the market. FDCK consumption decreased dramatically in 2020 and 2021, due to proactive actions by the local drug police before its listing as a controlled drug. Despite the dramatic decrease, FDCK was still the drug with greatest consumption by 2021, indicating that this substance persisted on the market even in the presence of forceful law enforcement. This finding also demonstrates that this substance may indeed have similar or even improved psychoactive effects relative to KET. Quick spread and persistence of FDCK demonstrated here indicates the urgent need to conduct wastewater-based monitoring of the abuse of the substance in other Chinese provinces and other countries.
7. Transformation strategies connected to carbon capture and utilization: A cross-sectoral configurational study
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 351, 1 June 2022, 131391
Firms from various industries are investing in carbon capture and utilization (CCU) technologies as part of their circular economy efforts. Hence, managers and policy makers need to develop strategies to create value and "win” sustainability transformations. This study investigates how CCU innovations are connected to economic progress at the firm and industry levels. First, we characterize economic progress from sustainability innovations as a spectrum of combinations of transformation and growth targets, and derive a configurational perspective for such innovations. Consequently, through an empirical study based on 25 in-depth expert interviews with corporate innovation managers, triangulated via additional quantitative and qualitative data, we investigate the causal configurations of R&D activities in CCU that are expected to lead to economic progress, using a fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis. Our results show a hierarchy of transformation strategies based on investments and value creation which may support policy makers in deciding on appropriate support mechanisms. To enable the emergence of more profitable CCU solutions and facilitate their commercialization, regulators should adapt existing policies to accommodate CCU and consider developing an integrated policy framework. Moreover, managers across industry should develop adaptive strategies for achieving value creation and progress from CCU within changing environments.
8. Impacts of the ecological footprint on sustainable development: Evidence from China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131472
Sustainable development emphasizes the sustainability of natural resources and the environment. Under the background of resource scarcity and environmental constraints, it is of great significance to explore the impacts of the ecological footprint on the resource-rich but unbalanced China's Yangtze River Economic Belt from two perspectives of flow capital occupation and stock capital occupation. This study uses a fixed-effect regression model to investigate the impacts of ecological footprint breadth and depth on sustainable development by the panel data of 108 prefecture-level cities in China's Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2006 to 2018. Further combining the panel threshold regression model results, we identify ecological footprint breadth and depth as having inverted N-shaped and inverted U-shaped relationships with sustainable development. Firstly, there is a double threshold effect between ecological footprint breadth and sustainable development. Then, there is a single threshold effect between ecological footprint depth and sustainable development. When ecological footprint breadth is within the threshold of (0.2802, 0.7997), it is conducive to sustainable development. When ecological footprint depth is less than 2.5404, it is conducive to sustainable development. Secondly, ecological footprint breadth improves sustainable development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt by rationalizing and advancing industrial structure. Ecological footprint depth achieves sustainable development through rationalizing industrial structure. Thirdly, the mechanism of the ecological footprint on sustainable development has regional heterogeneity. Finally, this paper proposes several policy implications for achieving China's sustainable development.
9. A multi-product landscape life-cycle assessment approach for evaluating local climate mitigation potential
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131691
Increasing demand for land-based climate mitigation requires more efficient management of agricultural landscapes for competing objectives. Here we develop methods for assessing trade-offs and synergies between intensification and carbon-sequestering conservation measures in annual crop production landscapes using the DayCent ecosystem model and the Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Technologies (GREET) life-cycle assessment (LCA) model. We compiled county-scaled crop yields, fertilizer application rates, and tillage intensity for a corn–soybean farming case study landscape in the US state of Iowa. Using DayCent, we estimated a baseline soil organic carbon (SOC) accrual rate of 0.29 Mg C ha−1 y−1 driven by historical increases in crop productivity and reductions in tillage intensity. We then simulated the effects of management interventions targeted toward intensification (stover removal) and SOC sequestration (tillage intensity reduction and winter cover crop addition) individually and in combination. We propose a new multi-product landscape–LCA approach that analyzes marginal changes in corn grain, corn stover, and soybean production from the landscape in terms of their value for biofuel production (corn ethanol, soy biodiesel, and cellulosic ethanol from stover) and associated net displacement of conventional fossil-derived fuel use. This enables us to evaluate both intensification and sequestration effects in common CO2-equivalent mitigation units. We also used DayCent-simulated yields under the different land management scenarios to estimate farm-level costs and revenues. Our results show that intensification via collecting 30% of corn stover for biofuel production would increase the total greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of this landscape by 0.93 Mg CO2e ha−1 y−1 and provide $49 ha−1 y−1 of additional net revenue from biomass sales, but would reduce the baseline SOC accumulation rate by approximately 40%. In contrast, integrated approaches that include co-adoption of winter cover cropping and/or tillage intensity reduction would result in increased rates of SOC accumulation above the baseline, achieving simultaneous improvements in both farm profits and the overall GHG mitigation potential of the landscape.
10. Decarbonization in state-owned power companies: Lessons from a comparative analysis
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131796
A rapid decarbonization of the electricity system is urgently required for the Paris Agreement objectives to stand a reasonable chance of being met. While state-owned power companies (SPCs) are the dominant firm type in the global electricity sector, representing nearly two thirds of global electric power generation capacity, most climate policy literature focuses on private sector companies when analyzing decarbonization interventions. SPCs’ distinct corporate governance structures, objectives, relationships with government, and sources of finance, however, can be markedly different from those of private companies. Here, we develop a framework for analyzing the extent to which common and divergent features of SPCs, and the markets in which they operate, affect their relationship to government interventions on decarbonization. We also consider the implications of these relationships for the effective implementation of sector-wide decarbonization strategies. We then apply this framework using a comparative case study analysis of six major SPCs, and highlight how differences in their agency, motivation, capacity, and market exposure may result in different potential responsiveness to government regulatory, policy and market interventions on decarbonization. We generalize these findings by developing four SPC archetypes and illustrate how they might respond differently to government interventions targeting decarbonization. Our analysis posits that SPCs can, under the guidance of governments pursuing ambitious climate policy, be more effective vehicles for decarbonization relative to private sector companies, particularly when they operate with a high degree of operational independence, are insulated from competitive pressures, and have the financial and technical capacity to invest in the decarbonization of their asset base. Similarly, market-wide policy interventions, such as carbon pricing mechanisms, could in practice be less effective interventions with respect to SPCs than their private counterparts when the SPC is ill-equipped to translate these incentives into decarbonization action because it is mandated to pursue supplementary objectives other than profit maximization alone. Ultimately, governments will need to step up their climate action to achieve carbon neutrality. SPCs can, and where they are major market players, must be key actors in driving decarbonization when the appropriate interventions are utilized and therefore deserve significantly more attention in the climate policy debate.
11. Assessment of energy recovery potential and analysis of environmental impacts of waste to energy options using life cycle assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 23 June 2022, 132854
Effective waste management such as energy recovery from waste is not very successful in many cities of India. The present study is carried out in the Dhanbad city, India where all the generated wastes are managed unscientifically through open dumping. Most of the reported life cycle assessment-based studies for Indian cities have focussed on the common waste management options such as composting and recycling. This study aimed to evaluate the energy recovery potential and environmental impacts of mainly waste to energy options namely; anaerobic digestion, landfill gas to energy, mass incineration and refuse derived fuel incineration based on the characteristics and composition of wastes of the study area. The selection of waste to energy options is done based on the composition of waste suitable for the respective options, thus making it helpful in reproducing the present work in other cities as well. Anaerobic digestion technology is evaluated based on the biogas generation potential of total food waste generated in the study area using laboratory-scale batch experiments. Similarly, landfill gas to energy is evaluated based on the estimated landfill gas generation (using LandGEM model) from the existing landfill of the study area. While incineration (mass and refuse derived fuel) is evaluated based on the heating value of combustible waste fractions. For the comparison of energy recovery potential and environmental impacts, six scenarios are developed. The maximum energy recovery potential of 602 kWh/tonne of dry waste is found for the scenario mass incineration of combustible waste fractions (72%) and landfilling of remaining wastes (28%). This scenario also showed the maximum net environmental savings due to avoided electricity production. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the collection efficiency of generated landfill gas for electricity conversion significantly impacts the change in global warming and photochemical ozone creation potential. The outcomes of this study will help the concerned authorities in developing the efficient waste to energy system.
12. Thermochemical treatment of daily COVID-19 single-use facemask waste: Power generation potential and environmental impact analysis
Energy, Volume 249, 15 June 2022, 123707
The utilization of single-use face masks as the standard PPE to minimize the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in increased facemask waste. Improper management of the increased facemask waste has a consequential environmental impact. This requires swift actions to invest and implement innovative technologies to manage single-use facemask waste. Thermochemical treatment of disposable face masks could minimize COVID-19 plastic waste and produce value-added products. The present study evaluates the power generation potential and environmental impact of treating estimated daily single-use facemask waste in Africa and Asia via incineration. The environmental assessment was expressed as global warming potential and acidification potential. The formulation of the model equations method was used to estimate the power generation potential. The IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventory methodology and EPA "compilation of air pollutant emissions factors” (AP-42) were used to compute greenhouse and acid gases. The key findings show that the daily single-use facemask waste produced in Asia was 19.12 million kg/day, generating 32.65 million kWh/day of electricity. In Africa, 3.53 million kg/day of single-use facemask waste was produced, generating 6.03 million kWh/day of power. The results also show Asia's total global warming potential was 787,097.6 kt CO2eq/day, and 145,687.7 kt CO2eq/day was recorded in Africa. Besides, the total daily acidification potential of the incineration process in Asia was 7,078,904 kg SO2eq/day, while that in Africa was 1,308,362 kg SO2eq/day. This study will provide scientific guidance for environmental sustainability for treating single-use facemask waste via incineration technology for power generation.
13. The COVID-19 pandemic, an environmental neurology perspective
Revue Neurologique, Volume 178, Issue 6, June 2022, Pages 499-511
Neurologists have a particular interest in SARS-CoV-2 because the nervous system is a major participant in COVID-19, both in its acute phase and in its persistent post-COVID phase. The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection has revealed most of the challenges and risk factors that humanity will face in the future. We review from an environmental neurology perspective some characteristics that have underpinned the pandemic. We consider the agent, SARS-CoV-2, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 as influenced by environmental factors, its impact on the brain and some containment measures on brain health. Several questions remain, including the differential clinical impact of variants, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on sleep and wakefulness, and the neurological components of Long-COVID syndrome. We touch on the role of national leaders and public health policies that have underpinned management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased awareness, anticipation and preparedness are needed to address comparable future challenges.
14. Incentivizing the future adoption of best management practices on agricultural land to protect water resources: The role of past participation and experiences
Ecological Economics, Volume 196, June 2022, 107389
Best Management Practices (BMPs) incentive programs have been introduced to protect agricultural land and reduce nutrient runoff in watersheds. However, their voluntary nature has not led to the expected high participation rates. We examine influencing factors and underlying drivers that are associated with BMP adoption and farmer preferences for specific BMPs. Data are collected through an online survey in Ontario, Canada in 2019. A binary logit model is estimated to explain current participation in BMP schemes and a multinomial logit model to predict preferences for future BMP uptake. Results show that a mix of farmer and farm characteristics and environmental attitudes explain both current participation in BMP schemes and the likelihood of adopting a future BMP. Farmers tend to endorse a BMP if they currently implement that BMP. The findings furthermore suggest that increasing farmers' environmental awareness and sharing positive BMP experiences with other farmers may help expand future BMP adoption in Ontario.
15. Brand response to environmental turbulence: A framework and propositions for resistance, recovery and reinvention
International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 39, Issue 2, June 2022, Pages 583-602
As valuable assets of corporations, governments and not-for-profit organizations, brands have attracted considerable research attention. We know a lot about how brands create knowledge in their target consumers’ minds, which leads to an attitude towards or relationship with the brand that translates into a number of favorable outcomes. The resultant brand equity is often associated with improved performance of the organization in reaching its objectives such as increasing market value. We know less about the dynamic nature of brand equity and, in particular, how it may interact with turbulence in the external environment in which the brand competes, both positively and negatively. We examine three key dimensions of brand equity—brands’ access to their target markets, perceived differentiation, and level of brand engagement with their target consumers—that influence the effect environmental turbulence has on diminishing equity or providing future opportunities for brand equity growth. Borrowing from the strategy literature, we suggest ways in which agile and resilient firms can use brand equity to resist environmental turbulence, recover from any damage that may result from it, and reinvent themselves to leverage opportunities created by a radically altered external environment. We close with a set of propositions intended to guide managers in anticipating and responding to environmental turbulence and inform and shape future research in this area.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Urban biowaste integrated management based on synergy mechanism and multi-objective optimization: A case study in Suzhou, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153691
Urban biowaste is the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) and is a predominant waste type in low- and middle-income countries. Urban biowaste is the main cause of pollution and produces odor and leachate, and it could also serve as a source of energy and nutrient elements. Therefore, urban biowaste management should actuate minimal pollution, maximized resource utilization, and economic feasibility, which makes it a multi-objective problem. With increasing requirements for the classified management of MSW, the complexity of urban biowaste management is increasing, and it is necessary to consider the synergy mechanism between different wastes and technologies from a systematic perspective. We constructed urban biowaste management integrated model (UBMIM) to support urban biowaste management system design and policy formation. Firstly, a dynamic quantitative simulation of the numerical matching and influence conduction was conducted based on technology system synergy mechanism. Secondly, a multi-objective evaluation of the technology system was conducted based on material flow analysis, life cycle assessment, and project economic benefit assessment. On this basis, a multi-objective optimization algorithm was used for technology selection under high-dimensional objectives, and the long-term risks were identified and policy recommendations were made based on an uncertainty analysis algorithm. As a case study for the application research of the model, Suzhou, China, was selected, and integrated technology solutions and policy suggestions were provided for 2020 and 2025. The optimized solution can improve the system's efficiency of energy-saving and emission reduction by 14.5%–400.9% while reducing operating costs and new investments.
2. Corrigendum to “Effects of land use, climate, and imperviousness on urban stormwater quality: A meta-analysis”
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153683
Many natural and anthropogenic factors cause degradation of urban stormwater quality, resulting in negative consequences to receiving waters. In order to improve water quality models at a variety of scales, accurate estimates of pollutant (nutrients, total suspended solids, and heavy metal) concentrations are needed using potential explanatory variables. To this end, a meta-analysis was performed on aggregated stormwater quality data from the published literature from 360 urban catchments worldwide to understand how urban land use and land cover (LULC), climate (i.e., Kӧppen-Geiger zone), and imperviousness (1) affect runoff quality, and (2) whether they are able to predict stormwater pollutant concentrations. Runoff pollutant concentrations were more influenced by LULC and climate than imperviousness. Differences in LULC significantly affected the generation of metals and some nitrogen species. Road, city center, and commercial LULCs generally produced the most elevated pollutant concentrations. Changes in climate zones resulted in significant differences in concentrations of nutrients and metals. Continental and arid climate zones produced runoff with the highest pollutant concentrations. Rainfall patterns seemed to have a more important role in affecting runoff quality than seasonal temperature. Differences in imperviousness only significantly affected chromium and nickel concentrations, although increased imperviousness led to slightly (not significantly) elevated concentrations of nutrients, suspended solids, and other heavy metals. Multiple linear regression models were created to predict the quality of urban runoff. Predictive equations were significant (p < 0.05) for 67% of the pollutants analyzed (ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc) suggesting that LULC, climate, and imperviousness are useful predictors of stormwater quality when local field monitoring or modeling is not practical. This study provides useful relationships to better inform urban stormwater quality models and regulations such as total maximum daily loads.
3. The influence of local background climate on the dominant factors and threshold-size of the cooling effect of urban parks
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153806
Urban parks can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI) by creating microclimates that lower in temperature than their surroundings, which are known as park cooling effect (PCE). The local background climate has a significant impact on the PCE, however the dominant factors and threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) of the PCE under different local background climates are still uncertain. Here, we selected 207 urban parks in 27 cities in East China with four different local background climates, warm temperate sub-humid monsoon (WTC), northern subtropical sub-humid monsoon (NSC), northern subtropical humid monsoon (NHC), and middle subtropical humid monsoon climate (MSC), for comparative studies. The relative contributions of multi-influencing factors to the PCE and TVoE of urban parks were quantified through a multivariate stepwise regression model and curve fitting. The results show that: (1) PCE increases from WTC, NSC, NHC to MSC, and urban parks at low latitudes have a greater cooling effect in general than those at high latitudes; (2) the area of the park is the dominant factor of PCE under four different local background climates (the explanation rate exceeds 50%) and water bodies within urban parks play a more significant role in the cooling effect in high latitudes, dry areas; (3) the TVoE of park on WTC, NSC, NHC, and MSC are 0.81, 0.71, 0.70, and 0.66 ha, respectively, revealing that the background climate significantly affects the TVoE. These findings are essential to decision-makers and can provide actionable knowledge for climate adaptation planning on a regional (climate) scale.
4. Methodological framework for wastewater treatment plants delivering expanded service: Economic tradeoffs and technological decisions
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153616
With emerging decarbonization to deploy more integrated waste management, there is a burgeoning need for re-managing waste-related infrastructures in urban environments. Wastewater treatment plants are key contributors to expanded environmental services, but relevant technological decisions and economic tradeoffs have to be assessed from a systems perspective. This study provides a methodological framework that consolidates the multiple technological and economic aspects of system retrofitting for such an evaluation purpose. Complex leachate from refuse transfer stations has been recently identified as the decarbonization roadblock of urban waste management, and it was chosen for investigations by this new methodological approach. The system impacts by complex leachate on the existing facilities were validated by experimental trials. To derive the financial outlooks for decision making, the evaluation matrix includes the quantitative impacts of bioenergy profiles, energy balance analysis of biogas utilization methods, needs of system retrofitting, economic factors, and their uncertainties. Due to the detected inefficiency of bioenergy recovery, bioinformatic analysis was proceeded for understanding the underlying mechanism to propose a mitigation solution. Overall, the methodological framework can provide a quantitative assessment of the centralized capability of wastewater treatment plants for systems planning in the new policy agenda of urban decarbonization, where the methodological potentials of expanded framework applications are also highlighted.
5. Explorations of tire and road wear microplastics in road dust PM2.5 at eight megacities in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153717
Tire and road wear microplastics (TRWMPs) in road dust are a key source of atmospheric particulate matter and have an adverse impact on human health and the environment. In this study, samples of particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) in road dust were collected from eight megacities in China to determine the TRWMP content, including that of natural rubber (NR), styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR), and butadiene rubber (BR). The total abundance of TRWMPs was the highest in Lanzhou (174.7 ± 17.0 μg g−1), followed by Xi'an (169.3 ± 23.8 μg g−1), Beijing (107.5 ± 7.5 μg g−1), Changchun (102.2 ± 8.4 μg g−1), Chengdu (101.6 ± 12.9 μg g−1), Guangzhou (98.8 ± 6.5 μg g−1), Wuhan (96.0 ± 5.3 μg g−1), and Shanghai (86.1 ± 30.1 μg g−1). A considerably higher TRWMP fraction in road dust PM2.5 was observed in the northern cities than in the southern cities and is attributable to the higher frictional resistance of roads subjected to less precipitation. The abundance of TRWMPs in the southern cities was dependent on road type, but this dependence was not observed in the northern cities. In the south, road dust PM2.5 on main roads contained more TRWMPs than that on branch roads. Correlation analysis indicated that TRWMPs were associated with tire, road, and break wear. In relation to intracellular oxidative stress factors, higher correlations were observed between TRWMPs and lactate dehydrogenase (r = 0.83) than between TRWMPs and reactive oxygen species (r = 0.59), possibly because TRWMPs destroy the integrity of the cell membrane, with NR exhibiting a higher cytotoxicity than SBR or BR. This study provides evidence that TRWMPs have an adverse impact on human health by inducing cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, further research on TRWMPs in respirable road dust is required.
6. Spatiotemporal patterns and ozone sensitivity of gaseous carbonyls at eleven urban sites in southeastern China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153719
Gaseous carbonyls are essential trace gases for tropospheric chemistry and contribute significantly to the formation of ambient air ozone (O3) in densely populated regions, especially in China. Pollution characterization and the analysis of O3, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (O3-NOX-VOCs) sensitivities of carbonyls were investigated from October 22 to 28, 2018 at eleven urban sites in nine cities in Fujian Province, southeastern China. The total mixing ratios of 15 kinds of gaseous carbonyls (Σ15OVOCs) was 12.15 ± 2.53 ppbv in Fujian Province. The concentrations in the eastern coastal regions were higher than those in the western mountainous regions. Formaldehyde, acetone, and acetaldehyde were the top three species of Σ15OVOCs concentration. Photochemical formation during the daytime and vehicle emission during the rush hours significantly contributed to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. The shoe-making industry is well developed in Putian, where the acetone mixing ratio was significantly higher than in other cities. The O3-NOX-VOCs sensitivities at all urban sites were in VOC-limited or transitional regimes based on the ratios of formaldehyde to NO2; from morning to afternoon, the VOC-limited sensitivity decreased, and the NOX-limited sensitivity increased gradually. Formaldehyde contributed the most significant O3 formation potential (OFP) proportion of the Σ15OVOCs. The OFP of carbonyl species accounted for half of the total VOCs in Fuzhou and Putian, suggesting that more attention needs to be given to gaseous carbonyls control. Overall, the links inferred by this study provide evidence and clues to mitigate the increasing ambient O3 concentration on the west coast of the Taiwan Strait.
7. Exploring antibiotic consumption between urban and sub-urban catchments using both parent drugs and related metabolites in wastewater-based epidemiology
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154171
Consumption of antibiotics leads to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Better knowledge of temporal and spatial consumption of antibiotics helps public health authorities to control their usage and combat antimicrobial resistance. However, measuring antibiotic consumption with population surveys, sales data, and production statistics remains challenging due to the complexity of prescription preference, patient compliance, and direct disposal of unused drugs. With the approach of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), this study aims to evaluate the consumption of eight commonly-used antibiotics between developed urban and developing sub-urban catchments in China and to characterise the ratios of parent drugs to metabolites in studying the consumption. Seven parent antibiotics were detected in all the wastewater samples (n = 56), whereas some metabolites were detected sporadically. The ratios of parent chemicals to metabolites varied among locations and were often higher than the ratios in pharmacokinetic studies. Estimated consumption of antibiotics ranged from 3.2 ± 2.0 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for trimethoprim to 28,400 ± 7800 mg/day/1000 inhabitants for roxithromycin in the studied catchments. Higher consumption of sulfapyridine, sulfadiazine and roxithromycin was observed in urban than suburban catchments, while consumption of sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, and trimethoprim was higher in suburban than in urban catchments. Using the literature data, we found more than 95% reduction of antibiotic use in an urban catchment. Our study revealed the geographical pattern in antibiotic use across different urban and suburban catchments via WBE, and the potential of monitoring parent-to-metabolite ratios for WBE in estimating antibiotic use. These results provide a basis for health authorities to plan different drug-specific control policies between urban and suburban catchments, and for future WBE studies to be aware of other sources, such as animal husbandry and disposals of unused drugs, that can influence the estimated consumption.
8. Association of traffic air pollution with severity of obstructive sleep apnea in urban areas of Northern Taiwan: A cross-sectional study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154347
Although recent studies have indicated an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and air pollution, they have reported inconsistent results. Moreover, few studies investigated the effects of short-term air pollution exposure.
To estimate the health effects of short- and long-term exposure to traffic air pollution on mild OSA in Taipei.
We collected participants' data from Taipei Sleep Center and air pollution data from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. A spatiotemporal model was used to estimate the individual exposure level. Generalized linear models were used to assess the percent change of overall apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), AHI in rapid eye movement period (AHI-REM), AHI in non-REM (AHI-NREM), and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) associated with an interquartile (IQR) increase in personal pollution exposure. A generalized logistic model was used to estimate the ORs of different severities of OSA compared with the reference group.
In the patients with AHI of <15, both short- and long-term exposure to NO2 were significantly associated with AHI and ODI increases: an IQR increase in 2-year mean NO2 increased 7.3% of AHI and 8.4% of ODI; these values were the highest among all exposure windows. The effects of NO2 on AHI increase were stronger in the men and younger patients. Moreover, the association between AHI and NO2 in the patients with AHI of <15 was mediated by the REM stage. NO2 exposure was associated with an increased risk of mild OSA that reached up to 24.8% per IQR increase in NO2 averaged over 2 years. PM2.5 exerted no effects on AHI, but an IQR increase in 1-year and 2-year mean PM2.5 was associated with 6.8% and 8.8% increases in ODI, respectively.
Both short- and long-term exposure to traffic air pollution were associated with the risk of mild OSA, which was modified by REM stage.
9. Process control for improving dewatering performance of sewage sludge based on carbonaceous skeleton-assisted thermal hydrolysis
Chemosphere, Volume 296, June 2022, 134006
The poor dewaterability of sewage sludge is a major obstacle to its disposal and utilization. Our previous study developed a novel method of carbonaceous skeleton-assisted thermal hydrolysis to achieve good performance of sludge dewatering. This work was conducted for further improving the efficiency through investigating the effects of the properties of sludge, skeleton, and key process parameters. A dewatering model was also established based on Darcy's Law and experimental results from a self-designed computer control on-line filter press system. The experimental results showed that the water content can all be reduced by about 36% for sludge with the varying organic content from 35% to 60%. Lignocellulosic skeleton had better assistive capabilities than skeleton with high content of hemicellulose, lipid, and chitin, and the appropriate dosage was 0.2–0.5 g/g DS. Satisfied reduction of about 30% in water content can be obtained when sludge was assisted-hydrolyzed at a moderate temperature of 180 °C only within 5 min and dewatered at 0.4–1.0 MPa for 10–20 min. By using self-developed dewatering model, the filtrate mass with time under any mechanical pressure can be obtained and the theoretical value fit the actual value very well. Based on this, excellent dewatering performance can be achieved through process control of assisted thermal hydrolysis and mechanical dewatering.
10. Photochemical evolution of air in a tropical urban environment of India: A model-based study
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134070
The photochemical processes over tropical Indian region impact the atmospheric composition and air quality over local to global scales; nevertheless, studies on detailed atmospheric chemistry remain sparse in this region. In this study, we investigate the photochemical evolution of air in the downwind of a tropical semi-arid urban environment (Ahmedabad) in India using the Master Mechanism model. The 5-days long chemical evolution has been simulated for the winter conditions - when this region experiences strong ozone build up. Model environment has been set up by including the meteorological conditions, overhead ozone, and aerosol loading, etc. Nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been initialized in the model based on the wintertime observations. The model predicts large O3 production (∼115 ppbv) in the downwind regions, followed by a gradual decrease from the 3rd day onwards. Additionally, significant amounts of the secondary inorganics, e.g. nitric acid (∼17 ppbv), hydrogen peroxide (∼9 ppbv), and organics, e.g. ketones (∼11 ppbv), are also simulated. The noontime maximum levels of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are simulated to be 0.3 and 44 pptv, respectively. While the production of OH is dominated by the reaction of NO with HO2 on the first day, photolysis of O3 dominates subsequently with reduction in NOx levels. VOCs are the major OH sink during day 1, however contribution of CO is greater on further days. The air mass trajectory analysis suggests the outflow of ozone-rich air over the rural areas and the Arabian Sea, in agreement with measurements and a global model. Our study highlights the strong impact of the urban outflows on the regional atmospheric composition. The continuous measurements of VOCs and radicals are needed over tropical regions to complement the models and further improve the understanding of air chemistry.
11. Neglected effect of transportation on the property of municipal biowaste and the subsequent biomethane potential
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131603
Long-distance transportation of municipal biowaste can influence its physio-chemical characteristics and the subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD) performance. However, the effect of whole transportation processes on the characteristics of municipal biowaste from upstream source separation/collection to downstream storage remains poorly documented. To this end, this study presented the relevant work by sampling in practical conditions. Results showed that transportation led to a high hydrolysis rate of 33.4%–35.5%, and an acidification rate of 15.8%–17.3%. Simultaneously, lactic acid was produced to a concentration of 18.1 g/L, occupying approximately 20% of dissolved organic carbon. Furthermore, the highest cumulative CH4 production was observed at the samples of source separation/collection (398 ± 52–519 ± 117 mL/gVS for FW, 276 ± 51–332 ± 41 mL/gVS for KW), and then accompanied by a decrease (299 ± 31 mL/gVS for FW and 285 ± 39 mL/gVS for KW) after downstream storage. The results indicated that the subsequent anaerobic digestion would be inclined to appear perturbation caused by the lactic acidification of the initial feed and it is imperative to avoid further conversion of lactic acid to propionic acid, which could provide vital guideline reference for the optimization of biogas production process. Moreover, the lactic acid-rich property also highlights other value-added pathways for the resource recovery of municipal biowaste.
12. Increasing the energy production in an urban wastewater treatment plant using a high-rate activated sludge: Pilot plant demonstration and energy balance
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131734
The use of high-rate activated sludge (HRAS) reactors for the removal of COD in urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been investigated because its potential contribution to energy generating WWTPs. A one-year operation period of a pilot plant treating the effluent of the primary settler of a full-scale WWTP was analyzed. The HRAS pilot plant operated without iron salts addition at temperatures between 12 and 28 °C at an average organic loading rate 2.8 ± 0.5 kg COD m−3 d−1 and with an average inflow COD concentration of 330 ± 86 mg O2 L−1. The influence of sludge retention time (SRT) on COD recovery and biomethane potential of the produced sludge was investigated and compared to the full scale WWTP performance. The highest observed sludge yield coefficient and biomethane potential of the sludge were achieved at SRT of 0.6 days. The weak point of the HRAS performance at STR of 0.6 days is the high loss of organic matter in the effluent due to the limited efficiency of the solids separation in the secondary settler. At higher SRT (in the range 1.0–2.1 days), the secondary settler efficiency and the COD recovery are higher than those achieved at SRT of 0.6 days but part of the inlet ammonium can be nitrified in the HRAS system at temperatures above 20 °C. A detailed energy balance indicated that two-thirds reduction of aeration requirements and one-third increase of biogas production could be achieved in a plant configuration in which HRAS is coupled to autotrophic biological nitrogen removal (BNR) compared to the heterotrophic BNR configuration, yielding a net energy production of ca. 0.1 kWh m−3 of treated water.
13. Performance assessment of biogas-fed solid oxide fuel cell system for municipal solid waste treatment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 354, 20 June 2022, 131702
An enormous amount of municipal waste is produced globally and a large proportion of this waste is dumped into the landfill that is now about to reach the maximum capacity and makes it obligatory to investigate alternative methods for waste treatment. This study proposes a novel design to treat the organic fraction municipal solid waste (OFMSW) to generate electricity using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The detailed process simulation is conducted using the standard chemical process simulator Aspen Plus which predicts the electricity that is generated using the OFMSW as feedstock. The biogas from the system is employed to the reformer that produces syngas and this mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is fed to the SOFC with air to generate electricity. The detailed characterization of the proposed system is conducted and numerous sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate the system performance. The study also employs a detailed technical and economic feasibility of the biogas-fed SOFC system for municipal solid waste treatment. The proposed design employs 1,000 Nm3/hr of biogas flow rate that produces 3,633 kW of DC power using SOFC. The thermal management of the designed system is also performed to recover the additional heat within the designed system. A detailed techno-economic feasibility study is conducted for the proposed system and the capital and operating expenditures, income and depreciation costs are also evaluated. The economic and cash flow analyses show that the plant is suitable for a long-term scenario. It has been predicted that if the electricity price increase to 130 $/MWh, it will take 5 years as a payback period for the long-term scenario. Furthermore, the results obtained from the sensitivity studies and techno-economic analysis are presented and discussed.
14. Urban flood response analysis for designed rainstorms with different characteristics based on a tracer-aided modeling simulation
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131797
The frequent occurrence of urban floods has severely affected urban public safety and restricted the sustainable development of the social economy. Studies have confirmed that extreme rainstorms are determining factors for the cause of urban floods. Additionally, the rainstorm pattern could be adopted to measure the temporal change in rainstorm intensity, and there may be differences in the process of urban flood, even if the rainstorm amount and return period are the same. The in-depth analysis of urban flood disaster levels in response to rainstorms with different characteristics is of substantial significance for managing unfavorable situations and implementing flood mitigation measures. Therefore, a tracer-aided urban flood model was developed to study the impact of rainstorm patterns on urban flooding. Based on the source tracking results, the direct and indirect connections were established between different areas of the urban system, their relative importance in the urban system was explored, and the response of urban flood processes to different rainstorm patterns from the perspective of flood source areas was analyzed. This study presents a modeling task for the Longkungou drainage district of Haikou City. Simulations were performed for 21 designed rainstorm events, in which the characteristic differences in rainstorm distribution are reflected in the return period, rainstorm patterns, and peak coefficients. The results indicate that in the case of the same rainstorm amount, the unimodal patterns, Modes II (middle peak) and III (late peak), are the most unfavorable situations for the flooded area. In addition, rainstorms with bimodal patterns also had different effects on the flood volume: Models VI and V had the largest and smallest flood volume, respectively. The source tracking results further showed that the formation of flood volume in the source area of the catchment is a comprehensive effect of regional characteristics and rainstorm patterns. The source area flood volume of catchments located upstream were not sensitive to the response of rainstorm patterns, and catchments in urban system with weaker drainage systems were more sensitive than that to the response of rainstorm patterns. This study provides theoretical insights for early warning of urban flooding, implementation of urban flood mitigation strategies, and flood risk management.
15. Adaptation to climate change: A study on regional urban water management and planning practice
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 355, 25 June 2022, 131643
Advancing knowledge on how climate change impacts on water resources is considered a priority in the academic world. This paper studies the strategies adopted by urban water professionals in the tropical region of Queensland, Australia to minimise the impacts of climate change on the regional urban water supply network. In the recent past, the dry tropical urban region of Queensland has faced a climate-induced water crisis (2014–2018). This article investigates the urban water distribution authorities’ planning and operational practices as part of climate change adaptation in the study region. Water professionals from the local urban water authorities were interviewed using a comprehensive range of questionnaires. Although the impacts of climate change on different water supply sources have been investigated in many parts of Queensland, the adaptation measures taken by the local authorities appear to be random and unplanned. Holistic implementation of climate change adaptation is rare and at its infancy stage due to the lack of quantifiable implementation frameworks or an audit process. The result shows resource constraints and lack of government support are the two major barriers to climate change adaptation in the water sector. Some water practitioners believe that the local urban water authorities have done a reasonable job on climate change adaptations in bits and pieces considering a wide range of local challenges such as lack of support from stakeholders, limited resources, and technology. Some other participants believe that too much attention on climate change will cause a noticeable problem in economic activities unless concerns from all stakeholders receive equal attention and are addressed. This is an important point and deserves proper acknowledgement to overcome relevant political and community barriers to climate change adaptation. The study concludes with a critical discussion on various strands of climate change adaptation to address the long-term regional urban water supply security challenges.
16. Associations of residential greenness with lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112877
Studies on the association of greenness with respiratory health are scarce in developing countries, and previous studies in China have focused on only one or two indicators of lung function.
The study aims to evaluate the associations of residential greenness with full-spectrum lung function indicators and prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
This nationwide cross-sectional survey included 50,991 participants from the China Pulmonary Health study. Lung function indicators included four categories: indicators of obstructive ventilatory dysfunction (FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC); an indicator of large-airway dysfunction (PEF); indicators of small-airway dysfunction (FEF25–75% and FEV3/FEV6); and other indicators. Residential greenness was assessed by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to analyze associations of greenness with lung function and COPD prevalence.
Within the 500 m buffer, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI was associated with higher FEV1 (24.76 mL), FVC (16.52 mL), FEV1/FVC (0.38), FEF50% (56.34 mL/s), FEF75% (33.43 mL/s), FEF25–75% (60.73 mL/s), FEV3 (18.59 mL), and FEV6 (21.85 mL). However, NDVI was associated with lower PEF. In addition, NDVI was significantly associated with 10% lower odds of COPD. The stratified analyses found that the associations were only significant in middle-young people, females, and nonsmokers. The associations were influenced by geographic regions.
Residential greenness was associated with better lung function and lower odds of COPD in China. These findings provide a scientific basis for healthy community planning.
17. Concentrations and isotopic analysis for the sources and transfer of lead in an urban atmosphere-plant-soil system
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114771
Lead pollution has attracted significant attention over the years. However, research on the transfer of lead between urban atmospheric particles, soils, and plants remains rare. We measured lead concentrations and lead isotope ratios in total suspended particles (TSP), soil, and plants in an urban wetland in Beijing. The study period was September 2016–August 2017- covering all four seasons. The concentrations of lead in the atmospheric particles vary from 3.13 to 6.68 mg/m3. It is significantly higher in autumn than that in spring and summer (P < 0.05). There is also a significant difference between summer and winter (P < 0.05). The soil lead concentrations range from 57 to 114 mg/kg, with the highest concentration in spring, followed by summer, winter and autumn. The lead concentrations are 1.28–7.75 mg/kg in plants. The concentration was highest in spring and significantly higher than in summer. The bioaccumulation factor of Phragmites australis was 0.064 (<0.1), indicating that lead is not easily transferred to plants. Unlike the bioaccumulation factors, translocation factors have much higher values, indicating a higher transfer within the plants. Results also indicate an interesting seasonal pattern with almost 97% of lead in plants during spring being of atmospheric origin, whereas in autumn, soilborne sources contribute almost 94%. The isotopic compositions of lead in the urban atmosphere-soil-plant system show that lead pollution results from the mixing of geogenic and anthropogenic materials. Vehicle exhaust, crustal rocks and ore deposits are likely primary sources of lead pollution within the study domain.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Efficient pollutants removal and microbial flexibility under high-salt gradient of an oilfield wastewater treatment system
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 823, 1 June 2022, 153619
The treatment of hypersaline oilfield wastewater (HSOW) is a challenge due to its complex composition and low biodegradability, especially in coastal areas. In this study, an HSOW treatment system of gas flotation and biochemistry technology combined with constructed wetland (CW) was investigated. The combined treatment system could efficiently remove COD, NH4+-N and oil under high salinity (1.36–2.21 × 104 mg/L), with average removal rates of 98.5%, 99.9% and 96%, respectively. Meanwhile, different salinity shaped particular community structures and functions. The abundance of Marivita, Parvibaculum, etc. was highly correlated with salinity. Co-occurrence network resulted that the microorganisms were highly interconnected, and formed a functional group of petroleum degrading. Pseudomonas, Rosevarius, Alternaria, etc. were the key genera. Moreover, functional prospected revealed that high salinity reduced the energy metabolism activity. This study will optimize the combined process and provide the basis for further extraction of high-efficiency degradation strains for HSOW enhanced treatment.
2. A review on magnetic sensors for monitoring of hazardous pollutants in water resources
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 824, 10 June 2022, 153844
Water resources have long been of interest to humans and have become a serious issue in all aspects of human life. The disposal of hazardous pollutants in water resources is one of the biggest global concerns and poses many risks to human health and aquatic life. Therefore, the control of hazardous pollutants in water resources plays an important role, when it comes to evaluating water quality. Due to low toxicity, good electrical conductivity, facile functionalization, and easy preparation, magnetic materials have become a good alternative in recent years to control hazardous pollutants in water resources. In the present study, the idea of using magnetic sensors in controlling and monitoring of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, heavy metals, and organic pollutants have been reviewed. The water pollutants in drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and seawater have been discussed. The toxicology of water hazardous pollutants has also been reviewed. Then, the magnetic materials were discussed as sensors for controlling and monitoring pollutants. Finally, future remarks and perspectives on magnetic nanosensors for controlling hazardous pollutants in water resources and environmental applications were explained.
3. High-spatial-resolution VOCs emission from the petrochemical industries and its differential regional effect on soil in typical economic zones of China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 827, 25 June 2022, 154318
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are toxic to the ecological environment. The emission of VOCs into the atmosphere has already caused attention. However, few studies focus on their regional effects on soil. As a major VOCs source in China, research on the effect of petrochemical industry on the environment is urgent and essential for regional control and industrial layout. This study established national VOCs emission inventory of five petrochemical sub-industries and spatial distribution based on consumption of raw material or products' yield and 28,888 factories. The VOCs emissions showed continuously increasing trend from 2008 to 2019, with cumulative 1.83 × 107 t, wherein these from rapid economic development zones accounted for 66.10%. The detected concentrations of VOCs in various industries combined with meteorological parameters were used in Resistance Model to quantify regional dry deposition. Higher concentrations of 111 VOC species were 238.27, 260.01, 207.54 μg·m−3 from large-scale enterprises for crude oil and natural gas extraction, oil processing, synthetic rubber and resin, leading to higher deposition ratios of 0.81%–0.94%, 0.70%–0.81%, 1.50%–1.75% in rapid economic development zones, respectively. The regional climate condition played a dominant role. Annual VOCs dry deposition amount in rapid economic development zones was calculated to be totally 6.38 × 103 t using obtained deposition ratios and emissions, with 3.21 × 103 t in Bohai Economic Rim (BER), 2.42 × 103 t in Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB), 748.43 t in Pearl River Delta (PRD). Generally, crude oil and natural gas extraction, oil processing, synthetic rubber and resin contributed 13.09%, 57.77% and 29.14%, respectively. The proportion of synthetic rubber and resin for dry deposition increased by 5.04%–18.81% compared with VOCs emissions in BER and YREB. In contrast, it declined from 45.52% for emission to 29.86% for deposition due to absolute dominance of small-scale enterprises in PRD. Overall, VOCs control from oil processing was significant, especially in BER.
4. Air–soil exchange of and risks posed by short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins: Case study in a contaminated area in China
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134230
Short-chain (SC) and medium-chain (MC) chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are found widely in the environment. Little research into air–soil exchange of SCCPs and MCCPs has been performed. In this study, CP concentrations, congener group profiles, and air–soil exchange in a typical contaminated area were investigated. A total of 10 soil samples and 10 air samples were collected from Zhoushan, an island in China. The samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. The SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the soil samples were 72–3842 and 117–8819 ng/g, respectively, and the SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the air samples were 57–208 and 1.8–25 ng/m3, respectively. The highest CP concentrations in both soil and air were found in samples from near shipyards, possibly because of CPs being emitted from metal cutting fluids and marine paints used at the shipyards. C14–15Cl7-9 were the dominant CP congener groups in the soil samples. C10Cl6–7 were the dominant CP congener groups in the air samples. Chlorinated decane and undecane and penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated CPs were enriched in the air relative to the soil. These congeners may have been released from the commercial CP-42 and CP-52. The fugacity fractions (ffs) of 48 homologs decreased as Koa increased. The ffs indicated that SCCPs and MCCPs dominated deposition. The net air–soil exchange fluxes of CPs were 201–769 ng/(m2·h). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs pose low ecological risk except at sampling site S7 and do not pose significant health risks.
5. Ammonia removal from industrial effluent using zirconium oxide and graphene-oxide nanocomposites
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134008
The present study developed and evaluated nano-adsorbents based on zirconium oxide and graphene oxide (ZrO2/GO) as a novel adsorbent for the efficient removal of ammonia from industrial effluents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate and identify the novel adsorbent in terms of morphology, crystallography, and chemical composition. The pH (7), adsorbent quantities (20 mg), adsorbent contact time (30 min) with the sample, and initial ammonia concentration were all tuned for ammonia uptake. To validate ammonia adsorption on the ZrO2/GO adsorbent, several kinetic models and adsorption isotherms were also utilized. The results showed that the kinetics of ammonia adsorption are of the pseudo-second order due to high R2 (>0.99) value as compared first-order (R2 = 0.52). The chemical behavior and equilibrium isotherm were analyzed using the isotherm models and Langmuir model provided high R2 (>0.98) as compared Freundlich (>0.96). Hence, yielding a maximum uniform equilibrium adsorption capacity of 84.47 mg g−1. The presence of functional groups on the surface of graphene oxide and ZrO2 nanoparticles, which interact efficiently with ammonia species and provide an efficient surface for good ammonia removal, is most likely to be responsible.
6. Fe-zeolite catalyst for ozonation of pulp and paper wastewater for sustainable water resources
Chemosphere, Volume 297, June 2022, 134031
The pulp and paper industry consumes enormous quality of freshwater, leading to wastewater. It must be treated to remove pollutants, particularly residual dyestuffs, before releasing them to water bodies to avoid adverse environmental effects. The traditional wastewater treatment methods used for the pulp and paper industry are less efficient in colour and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The current study is aimed at developing a novel catalyst for the catalytic ozonation of pulp and paper wastewater with better colour and COD removal for sustainable resources of clean water. The proposed catalyst is impregnated by iron on natural zeolites. Various parameters such as catalyst dose, pH, ozone dose, initial COD concentration, and reaction time are studied and optimized. The performance was evaluated by comparing the results with the single ozonation process (SOP) and catalytic ozonation process (COP). The highest COD and colour reduction efficiencies have been achieved, i.e., 71%, and 88% at a natural pH of 6.8. The proposed process achieved higher COD and colour efficiencies than the single ozonation process and catalytic ozonation process using raw zeolites. The improvement in efficiencies are 23% and 29% for SOP and 17% and 19% for COP, respectively. Hence, the results proposed the sustainability and applicability of COP to treat paper and pulp sector effluent.
7. Elimination of toxic heavy metals from industrial polluted water by using hydrophytes
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 352, 10 June 2022, 131358
Heavy metals (HMs) are frequently detected in wastewaters, especially in industrial discharges. Phytoremediation is one of the promising low cost, environmental friendly and efficient technique to remove HMs from industrial wastewater. The current research was carried out to investigate the ability of constructed wetland (CW) for the removal of HMs including copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) from local wastewater of industries by using two local common hydrophytes species Pistia stratiotes and Lemna Gibba. After 45 days cultivation, the concentration of HMs reduced to 0.25–0.90 mg/L and 0.78–1.4 mg/L from 5 mg/L for Lemna gibba and Pistia stratiotes, respectively. The HMs removal efficiency ranged from 82% to 95% for Lemna gibba and 72%–84.4% for Pistia stratiotes. The accumulation of HMs in roots are always higher than that in aerial part including stems and leaves for both plants. The accumulation of HMs in roots of Lemna gibba ranged from 4.3 to 4.7 mg/kg and, 1.85–3.9 mg/kg in aerial part. The corresponding values were 3.9–4.7 mg/kg and, 1.75–3.3 mg/kg for Pistia stratiotes. Results of health risk models including the average daily intake (ADI), hazard quotient (HQ) and cancer risk (CR) models indicated lower health risk of water after treatment than before treatment water. Result indicated the selected hydrophytes could be applied for HMs treatment from contaminated water.
8. Industrial agglomeration and industrial SO2 emissions in China's 285 cities: Evidence from multiple agglomeration types
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 353, 15 June 2022, 131675
The environmental externalities of industrial agglomeration have generated intense debate, yet few studies have considered their effects and inner influence mechanism based on varied agglomeration types. This study distinguished between industrial density and proximity (spatially) and industrial specialization and diversity, as well as related variety and unrelated variety (organizationally). Using the panel data from China's 285 cities from 2003 to 2013, we examined the different effects of multiple agglomeration types of industrial agglomeration on industrial SO2 emissions, and their inner influence mechanism from two aspects of industrial structure and technological progress. First, we found that various agglomeration types have different environmental externalities and that industrial density and proximity both have significant reduction effects on SO2 emissions; diversity and related variety effectively reduce SO2 discharges, but specialization and unrelated variety are linked to increased emissions. Second, technological progress and industrial structure are the critical channels of industrial agglomeration affecting pollution emissions while technological progress plays a greater role in the reducing emission effect of industrial agglomeration. Our findings reveal the importance of different agglomeration types and technological progress between industrial agglomeration and pollution emission.
9. Construction of SnO2/g-C3N4 an effective nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of amoxicillin and pharmaceutical effluent
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112809
The current study mainly focused on the fabrication of 2D graphitic carbon nitride-supported tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2/g-C3N4) for the effective degradation of Amoxicillin (AMX). Tin oxide (SnO2) NPs were prepared by green and easy modification technique, and then it is decorated over g-C3N4 nanosheets. The structural morphology and surface composition of the synthesized SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite were fully analysed by UV–Vis, XRD, XPS, and HR-SEM with EDAX, FT-IR, and BET analysis. The (HR-TEM) microscopy, the size of SnO2 NPs which as a diameter is about 6.2 nm. The Raman analysis revealed that the SnO2/g-C3N4 composite had a moderate graphitic structure, with a measured ID/Ig value of 0.79. The degradation efficiency of antibiotic pollutant AMX and pharma effluent treatment was monitored by UV spectroscopy. The optical band gap of SnO2 (2.9 eV) and g-C3N4 (2.8 eV) photocatalyst was measured by Tauc plots. To investigate the mechanism through the photodegradation efficiency of the catalyst was analysed by using different Scavenger EDTA-2Na holes (h+) has a greater contribution towards the degradation process. Under visible irradiation, SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite has exhibited an excellent degradation performance of 92.1% against AMX and 90.8% for pharmaceutical effluent in 80 min.
10. Towards sustainable wastewater treatment: Influence of iron, zinc and aluminum as anode in combination with salt bridge on microbial fuel cell performance
Environmental Research, Volume 209, June 2022, 112781
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a green technology and does not harm the environment. It can be used for wastewater treatment, hydrogen production and power generation. There are lot of avenues need to be investigated to increase the efficiency of MFC and in order to make it acceptable publicly. Efficiency of MFC depends on many factors. In this study, the influence of anode materials (Fe, Al and Zn), their sizes (12, 16 and 20 cm2) and shapes (square, rectangular and circular) were investigated on MFC efficiency. Dual chamber MFC setup was prepared in which Rhodobacter capsulatus was used as biocatalytic agent. Results revealed that Zn anode gave the highest voltage of 1.57 V with corresponding 0.23 A of current. Size of 20 cm2 of anode gave maximum voltage of 1.66 V with corresponding value of 0.08 A current, while anode size of 16 cm2 gave maximum current of 0.75 A with corresponding voltage of 1.65 V. Regarding their studied shapes, circular shape of anode gave the highest voltages of 1.70 V. Salt bridge played an important role in internal resistance of the fuel cell. The results were checked by changing the diameter and length of the salt bridge. The best results were noticed with 16 cm2 circular Zn anode and Fe as cathode. Salt bridge with 7.5 cm length gave the highest voltage of 1.65 V, while 4 gauge diameter salt bridge gave the highest current of 0.85 A.
11. Treatment of wastewater containing methyl orange dye by fluidized three dimensional electrochemical oxidation process integrated with chemical oxidation and adsorption
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114775
The integrated high-efficiency treatment technology for dye industry wastewater is one of the current research hot topic in industrial wastewater treatment area. This article reports a new fluidized three-dimensional electrochemical treatment process integrating activated carbon adsorption, direct electro-oxidation and ·OH oxidation. In the process, activated carbon is polarized in a fluidized bed electrochemical reactor to enhance the direct electro-oxidation and ·OH oxidation, and there is a synergistic effect of effective adsorption and electrochemical oxidation to strengthen the treatment efficiency. When 200 mg/L methyl orange is processed, its removal rate reaches 99.9% in 30min, and the synergistic efficiency is 57.3%. After 8 cycles of activated carbon reusage in the process, the removal rate of methyl orange still kept at 89.2%. It is also founded that the activated carbon maintains 64.5% of its original adsorption capacity during the cycle. These results shows its interesting application potential in the fields of high-efficiency, low-cost and green treatment of various industrial organic wastewaters. Further improvements should focus on the development of continuous operation model and the improvement of the activated carbon electro-catalytic performance and the practical regeneration ways of the activated carbon particle electrodes.
12. Does the green credit policy reduce the carbon emission intensity of heavily polluting industries? -Evidence from China's industrial sectors
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114815
Green credit policy (GCP) is an important practical exploration to guide green economic development by financial means. Empirically, however, little is known about the relationship between GCP and industrial carbon emissions intensity (CEI). This study aims to investigate the impact of GCP on the CEI of heavily polluting industries (HPIs) by treating Green Credit Guidelines as a quasi-natural experiment. Using Chinese industry-level panel data and a difference-in-difference model, we find that after the implementation of GCP, the CEI of HPIs decreased by an average of 0.267 tons/104 yuan per year compared to non-HPIs. Resource allocation effect and green innovation effect are two channels through which GCP reduces CEI of HPIs. Moreover, the GCP has a greater effect on the CEI of HPIs with lower state-owned ratios, higher total factor productivity and higher capital dependence. These findings provide policy insights for promoting industrial carbon emissions reduction.
13. Mass flow, enrichment and potential environmental impacts of mercury in a preheater-precalciner cement plant using multiple mining and industrial wastes
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114819
Cement plants (CPs) are one of the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury (Hg) emissions in China. Over 1000 cement production lines operate in China and use various raw materials; however, little data on Hg emissions is recorded on site. This study investigated a CP in Guizhou Province that uses multiple mining and industrial wastes as part of the circular economy policy. Among the various raw materials, carbide slag had the highest Hg content (2.6 mg/kg) and contributed half of the Hg input. High Hg concentration (27 mg/kg) in the kiln tail dust and a strong Hg enrichment factor (39) was found, which was determined as the ratio of total Hg accumulated within the clinker production process to the daily Hg input from raw materials and fuel. The clinker had negligible Hg (0.001 mg/kg), while the Hg in cement products (0.04 mg/kg) mostly came from additives and retarders. The estimated atmospheric emission factor of Hg from this CP was 161.5 mg Hg/t clinker, which was much higher than those of other CPs in Guizhou that employ low-Hg raw materials. A five-step sequential extraction experiment with kiln tail dust indicates that Hg mainly existed in fraction of F4 (73–96% of the total Hg, possibly as Hg2Cl2) and that some samples had high proportions of water-soluble Hg (up to 21% of the total), which may be easily released into surrounding water bodies and pose high environmental risks. Using low-Hg raw (or alternative raw) materials and conducting proper disposal of kiln tail dust will reduce the environmental risk of Hg from CPs.
14. Cooperative physical separation of oil and suspended solids from methanol-to-olefin wastewater: A pilot study
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114841
Methanol-to-olefin (MTO) is an important non-petroleum chemical process for the preparation of light olefins. However, the MTO process consumes copious amounts of water and produces large amounts of untreated effluent. Therefore, the realization of efficient wastewater treatment and recycling is key to the green low-carbon development of MTO. Here, a cooperative process combining swirl regenerating micro-channel separation (SRMS) and combined fibrous coalescence (CFC) technologies was proposed to separate high contents of oil and suspended matter in MTO wastewater. Using a pilot device with a treatment capacity of 1 m3/h, the average oil content in MTO wastewater decreased from 750 mg/L to <30 mg/L, while the average content of suspended matter decreased from 108 mg/L to <15 mg/L. Compared with a commercial MTO wastewater treatment process (olefin production capacity of 0.6 million tons per annum), the proposed method could reduce wastewater discharges and costs by 57% and US$ 0.23 million per annum respectively. Equipment costs and operational energy consumption were also reduced by 30% and >95% respectively. The combined process may provide the basis for the green and sustainable treatment of MTO wastewater and its recycling.wwưưw
15. Integrated emergent-floating planted reactor for textile effluent: Removal potential, optimization of operational conditions and potential forthcoming waste management strategy
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 311, 1 June 2022, 114832
Native emergent and floating plants; local reed grass (Phragmites karka) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), respectively, were used to treat textile wastewater using an integrated emergent-floating planted reactor (IEFPR) system at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 8, 14, and 19 days. Real textile effluent having characteristics of 1686.3 ADMI for colour, 535 mg/L for total suspended solid (TSS), 647.7 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 124 mg/L for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was used throughout this study. The IEFPR system experienced maximum removal of colour (94.8%, HRT 14 days, day 3), TSS (92.7%, HRT 19 days, day 7), and COD (96.6%, HRT 8 days, day 5) at different HRT and exposure time. The process conditions (HRT and exposure time) were optimized for maximum colour, TSS and COD removal from textile effluent by employing response surface methodology (RSM). The optimization has resulted 100% removal of colour, 87% removal of TSS and 100% removal of COD at HRT of 8 days and exposure time of 5 days, with 0.984 desirability. The integrated plant-assisted treatment system showed reliable performance in treating textile wastewater at optimum operational conditions to improve effluent quality before disposal into water bodies or being recycled into the process. The potential of phytoremediator (produced plant biomass) to be utilized as resources for bioenergy or to be converted into value added products (adsorbent or biochar) provides an alternative to management strategy for better environmental sustainability.
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