Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 35-2022
Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 35-2022 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
- Mối liên quan giữa phơi nhiễm độ xanh và tỷ lệ mắc COVID-19 ở Hàn Quốc: Một nghiên cứu sinh thái.
- Mức độ toàn cầu và xu hướng thời gian của tình trạng thiểu năng trí tuệ phát triển vô căn do phơi nhiễm chì từ 1990 đến 2019: Kết quả từ Nghiên cứu Gánh nặng Bệnh tật Toàn cầu.
- Bao gồm các thay đổi carbon hữu cơ trong đất có thể đảo ngược kết quả của các định lượng thông lượng năng lượng trong lịch sử của nông nghiệp Pampean.
- Phân tích toàn diện về sự tiến hóa và các mối liên hệ cơ bản của các chủ đề nghiên cứu về nước trong thế kỷ 21.
- Hành vi theo dõi và công bố trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp: Phân tích và ý nghĩa đối với nghiên cứu tính bền vững.
- Các rào cản đối với nền kinh tế xoay vòng trong các doanh nghiệp vừa và nhỏ và sự hội nhập của chúng trong khuôn khổ quản lý chiến lược bền vững.
- Ứng dụng quy mô lớn của việc thu giữ carbon cho các ngành công nghiệp chế biến - Đánh giá.
- Những đổi mới trong cơ sở hạ tầng xanh và xanh đô thị: Giải quyết các thách thức địa phương và toàn cầu ở các thành phố.
- Chuyển giao carbon toàn cầu và phát thải trong quá trình sản xuất và tiêu thụ nhôm.
Về môi trường đô thị
- Xác định các thông số chính của nước và các thành phần vi sinh gây ra phát thải N2O lớn trong quá trình xử lý nước rỉ rác bãi chôn lấp.
- Không gian xanh trong khu dân cư và sự phát triển thời thơ ấu và thành tích học tập: Phân tích theo chiều dọc về trẻ em Úc từ 4–12 tuổi.
- Đô thị hóa cản trở việc kiểm soát sinh học đối với côn trùng gây hại: Một phân tích tổng hợp toàn cầu.
- Sự xuất hiện, phân bổ nguồn và đánh giá ô nhiễm của các chất per- và polyfluoroalkyl trong một con sông qua các khu vực nông thôn và thành thị.
- Các nguyên tố đất hiếm do con người gây ra trong các hồ đô thị: Sự phân bố không gian của chúng và ứng dụng theo dõi.
- Hành vi rửa trôi kim loại nặng và đánh giá rủi ro môi trường dài hạn của quá trình đốt chất thải rắn đô thị hóa rắn bằng xi măng tro bay trong bãi chôn lấp hợp vệ sinh.
- Dòng chảy trên đường như một nguồn cung cấp paraben và các chất chuyển hóa không trọng điểm đáng kể của chúng trong các dòng sông đô thị.
- Loại bỏ thuốc trừ sâu clo hữu cơ và phân tích đo lường bằng cách xử lý nhiều giai đoạn đất ngập nước được xây dựng để xử lý nước rỉ bãi rác.
- Làm thế nào để trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp và đổi mới xanh chuyển đổi chiến lược xanh của doanh nghiệp thành hoạt động bền vững của doanh nghiệp?
- Mái nhà xanh như một công cụ hữu hiệu để phát triển đô thị bền vững: Quan điểm của Úc liên quan đến quản lý nước mưa và năng lượng tòa nhà.
- Mâu thuẫn hay phối hợp? Mối quan hệ về mặt không gian giữa rủi ro sinh thái cảnh quan và đô thị hóa từ các quan điểm khớp nối ở Trung Quốc.
- Giảm thiểu rủi ro tử vong ở các khu vực đô thị bằng cách giảm thiểu ô nhiễm khí quyển.
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Tổng hợp và mô tả đặc tính của oxit Spinel lưỡng kim ZnCo2O4 pha tạp bạc được hỗ trợ rGO để tăng cường khả năng phân hủy quang xúc tác của nước thải công nghiệp.
- Điều tra hiệu quả sinh thái của ngành dệt may Trung Quốc dựa trên phân tích cấp công ty.
- Sự phân bố theo không gian theo chiều dọc của vi nhựa ven sông: Tác động của ngành dệt may.
- Những thách thức của chính phủ Anh và các ngành công nghiệp liên quan đến kiểm soát khí thải sau lệnh cấm phương tiện của ICE.
- Phát triển hệ thống xác định đặc tính nhựa liên xác nhận sử dụng kỹ thuật quang phổ để quản lý chất thải.
- Đánh giá quan trọng về thu hồi cadmium từ nước thải theo hướng bền vững môi trường.
- Mô hình đánh giá tính bền vững cho các khu công nghiệp: Cách tiếp cận tổng hợp tích phân Choquet.
- Nghiên cứu kinh tế hệ thống trao đổi tái sử dụng nước tập trung trong khu công nghiệp có xét đến việc phân loại nước thải.
- Quy trình oxy hóa nâng cao dựa trên gốc sulfat để xử lý nước thải công nghiệp nông nghiệp: Đánh giá so sánh với quá trình peroxy hóa của Fenton.
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. The association between greenness exposure and COVID-19 incidence in South Korea: An ecological study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154981
The rapid spread of COVID-19 has caused an emergency situation worldwide. Investigating the association between environmental characteristics and COVID-19 incidence can be of the occurrence and transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between greenness exposure and COVID-19 cases at the district levels in South Korea. We also explored this association by considering several environmental indicators.
District-level data from across South Korea were used to model the cumulative count of COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons between January 20, 2020, and February 25, 2021. Greenness exposure data were derived from the Environmental Geographic Information Service of the Korean Ministry of Environment. A negative binomial mixed model evaluated the association between greenness exposure and COVID-19 incidence rate at the district level. Furthermore, we assessed this association between demographic, socioeconomic, environmental statuses, and COVID-19 incidence.
Data from 239 of 250 districts (95.6%) were included in the analyses, resulting in 127.89 COVID-19 cases per 100,000 persons between January 20, 2020 and February 25, 2021. Several demographic and socioeconomic variables, districts with a higher rate of natural greenness exposure, were significantly associated with lower COVID-19 incidence rates (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.90; P-value = 0.008) after adjusting covariates, but no evidence for the association between built greenness and COVID-19 incidence rates was found.
In this ecological study of South Korea, we found that higher rates of exposure to natural greenness were associated with lower rates of COVID-19 cases.
2. Role of black carbon in modulating aerosol direct effects driven by air pollution controls during 2013–2017 in China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154928
Aerosol direct effects (ADEs) can modulate shortwave radiation as well as atmospheric dynamics and air quality. As the key absorbing component of aerosol, the black carbon (BC) largely determines the aerosol optical properties. Therefore, it is expected that BC emission controls might gain co-benefits from the simultaneous reduction of ADEs. To demonstrate such synergy, here we quantified the ADEs changes and the role of BC controls in China during 2013–2017 using a regional two-way coupled meteorology chemistry transport model. Simulated results suggest that the control action effectively reduced the wintertime PM2.5 concentration (−26.0 μg m−3) and associated ADEs. In January, the influence of ADEs on surface shortwave radiation, 2-meter temperature, and planetary boundary layer height was weakened from −16.7 W m−2, −0.20 °C, and −15.4 m in 2013 to −11.3 W m−2, −0.06 °C, and −10.7 m in 2017, respectively. The enhancement of SO2, NO2, and PM2.5 concentrations due to ADEs was reduced from +3.1%, +5.2%, and +5.4% in 2013 to +2.6%, +4.5%, and +3.3% in 2017, respectively, demonstrating the extra benefit of air pollution controls for improving air quality by reducing ADEs. Meanwhile, the BC emission reduced by 12.5% simultaneously along with the effective controls on SO2 and NO2 emissions during 2013–2017, mainly from domestic combustion (−11.7%), resulting in 30.3% (−0.9 μg m−3) reduction of BC concentration. Such BC controls contributed 15.6–60.2% of such changes in the ADEs influence on meteorological variables, and 32.6–41.1% on air pollutants. More specially, the effectiveness of collaborative reduction of BC further reduced surface shortwave radiation in China by 3.6 W m−2 in January and 1.0 W m−2 in July, leading to a more weakened ADEs that bring extra benefits in reducing PM2.5 concentrations by 1.8 μg m−3 in January and 0.3 μg m−3 in July. Apparently, BC played an important role in modulating the ADEs and associated influences on meteorology and air quality, suggesting a wise control strategy by targeting absorbing component of PM2.5 reduction to address both air pollution and climate change in the future.
3. Reasons for the observed tropospheric ozone weakening over south-western Europe during COVID-19: Strict lockdown versus the new normal
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 10 August 2022, 155162
In this work we investigate the variation in tropospheric ozone concentrations in south-western Europe in March and April 2020 in the context of COVID-19 disease, and to what extent the former situation was recovered one year after the pandemic outbreak. To carry this study, data from 15 regional background sites in Spain, from 2010 onwards, are used. Historic (2010–2019) and most recent tropospheric ozone concentrations are compared. March and April 2020 ozone concentrations declined over 15% in most cases, rising to 23–28% at sites facing the Mediterranean. Most of the decay was related to the reduction of hemispheric background concentrations, but those sites downwind continental emissions from the Iberian Peninsula and neighbouring countries experienced an additional lessening. By exploring O3 concentrations one year after, March and April 2021, the general decline with respect to 2010–2019 persist but its magnitude was substantially lessened with respect to the strict lockdown period. The pandemic situation unveiled that air pollution is not an endemic matter but it should be tackle with adequate actions. Ozone abatement plans for Mediterranean countries should need a pan-regional covenant in order to drop precursor emissions.
4. Global magnitude and temporal trends of idiopathic developmental intellectual disability attributable to lead exposure from 1990 to 2019: Results from Global Burden of Disease Study
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 834, 15 August 2022, 155366
As an important environmental pollutant, lead exposure can result in idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (IDII). However, the latest spatiotemporal patterns across the world are unclear. Therefore, in this study, the global burden of lead exposure-related IDII was assessed using the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study (2019). The data were downloaded from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), and the estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was calculated to assess the changing trend of the age-standardized disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) rates (ASDR) of global IDII attributed to lead exposure. In 2019, the number of global DALYs of IDII attributed to lead exposure was 2.72 million, the corresponding ASDR was 35.70 per 100,000. The ASDR was highest in children and adolescents, and low- and middle-income countries. From 1990 to 2019, the global number of DALYs of IDII attributable to lead exposure increased by 7.89%, while the ASDR of IDII decreased by 19.19% [EAPC = −0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): (−0.90, −0.66)]. The downward trends were seen in most GBD regions and countries, especially in high-income countries, but 11 countries presented an upward trend. Therefore, it is important to continue to improve primary mental healthcare globally, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Meanwhile, the implementation of effective strategies to reduce lead exposure should be continually strengthened.
5. Inclusion of soil organic carbon changes can reverse results of historical energy flux quantifications of Pampean agriculture
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155533
The questions that guided this work were: 1) How do energy inputs, outputs, and energy indices evolve during the last four decades along the rainfall gradient of the Pampas, 2) How does present agrochemical and fertilizer use in Argentina resemble, or differ, from other main grain producing regions with large no-till surfaces?, and 3) How do energy fluxes vary when soil organic carbon (SOC) changes during the last four decades are included? Energy balances (outputs – inputs), energy efficiencies (outputs/inputs) and energy intensities (inputs/yield) were calculated. Inputs comprised agrochemicals and fertilizers, machinery used for soil tillage and fuel use and gathered from different information sources. Outputs included yield of main crops from national statistics. Calculations were performed for four areas along a rainfall gradient during the 1970–2015 period. Energy coefficients were collected from literature. Soil organic carbon changes of the upper soil profile meter were available from a previous publication. Total input averages per area were low although increased 62% after four decades, from 6.6 GJ ha−1 in the past up to 10.5 GJ ha−1 at present with no marked differences between areas. Agrochemicals comprised 49% of total energy input, a very large proportion compared to other regions mainly related to the large surface under no-tillage while fertilizer rates were low. Average energy outputs increased 51% with time and all energy balances were positive. Energy efficiencies had an optimum during 1995 of 4.8 decreasing afterwards down to 3.7. Energy intensities decreased and at present 14% less input energy was needed per t DM yield produced. Two areas gained SOC and one lost large amounts. Inclusion of SOC losses in energy quantifications turned all energy indices to negative values therefore providing a real scenario of what happened with energy fluxes after four decades of agriculture which otherwise would be ignored.
6. A comprehensive analysis of evolution and underlying connections of water research themes in the 21st century
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155411
This work aimed to reflect the advancements in water-related science, technology, and policy and shed light on future research opportunities related to water through a systematic overview of Water Research articles published in the first 21.5 years of the 21st century. Specific bibliometric analyses were performed to i) reveal the temporal and spatial trends of water-related research themes and ii) identify the underlying connections between research topics. The results showed that while top topics including wastewater (treatment), drinking water, adsorption, model, biofilm, and bioremediation remained constantly researched, there were clear shifts in topics over the years, leading to the identification of trending-up and emerging research topics. Compared to the first decade of the 21st century, the second decade not only experienced significant uptrends of disinfection by-products, anaerobic digestion, membrane bioreactor, advanced oxidation processes, and pharmaceuticals but also witnessed the emerging popularity of PFAS, anammox, micropollutants, emerging contaminants, desalination, waste activated sludge, microbial community, forward osmosis, antibiotic resistance genes, resource recovery, and transformation products. On top of the temporal evolution, distinct spatial evolution existed in water-related research topics. Microplastics and Covid-19 causing global concerns were hot topics detected, while metagenomics and machine learning were two technical approaches emerging in recent years. These consistently popular, trending-up and emerging research topics would most likely attract continuous/increasing research input and therefore constitute a major part of the prospective water-related research publications.
7. Followership behavior and corporate social responsibility disclosure: Analysis and implications for sustainability research
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 360, 1 August 2022, 132151
This study explores the influence of social media on corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure. The purpose is to understand if and how followership behaviours (e.g., likes, comments, sharing) impact CSR disclosure to achieve legitimacy by stakeholders. A systematic literature review has been conducted on a data collection of 78 scientific articles published between 2001 and 2021. Under the lens of the Legitimacy Theory, this study provides insights into key topics through a retrospective review of the published content by scholars in CSR disclosure and social media issues. The findings highlight that field research has mainly focused on the influence of emerging social media on marketing and advertisement. In contrast, less attention has been paid to how CSR disclosure changes or is affected by social media, particularly followership behaviors. The study offers theoretical and practical implications on the legitimacy companies seek through CSR disclosure and exogenous factors, such as social media. In fact, followership behaviors could represent an accelerator of the disclosure process, influencing responsible business strategy based on knowledge sharing within a virtual community.
8. The Chinese plug-in electric vehicles industry in post-COVID-19 era towards 2035: Where is the path to revival?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 361, 10 August 2022, 132291
The sudden Coronavirus Disease reported at the end of 2019 (COVID-19) has brought huge pressure to Chinese Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs) industry which is bearing heavy burden under the decreasing fiscal subsidy. If the epidemic continues to rage as the worst case, analysis based on System Dynamics Model (SDM) indicates that the whole PEVs industry in China may shrink by half compared with its originally expected level in 2035. To emerge from the recession, feasible industrial policies include (1) accelerating the construction of charging infrastructures, (2) mitigating the downtrend of financial assistance and (3) providing more traffic privilege for drivers. Extending the deadline of fiscal subsidy by only 2 years, which has been adopted by the Chinese central government, is demonstrated to achieve remarkable effect for the revival of PEVs market. By contrast, the time when providing best charging service or most traffic privilege to get the PEVs industry back to normal needs to be advanced by 10 years or earlier. For industrial policy makers, actively implementing the other two promoting measures on the basis of existing monetary support may be a more efficient strategy for Chinese PEVs market to revive from the shadow in post-COVID-19 era.
9. Barriers to a circular economy in small- and medium-sized enterprises and their integration in a sustainable strategic management framework
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132227
A circular economy limits the consumption of virgin resources, fosters cleaner production, and promotes the efficient utilization of resources. However, many companies still struggle with its implementation. In this study, we explore the barriers that companies encounter internally and externally when implementing circular economy measures. Based on 59 interviews with Swiss small- and medium-sized enterprise managers from three industries, we identify six company-internal barriers (risk aversion, short-term orientation, economically dominated thinking, unwillingness to engage in trade-offs, shortage of resources, and lack of knowledge) and four levels of company-external barriers (technology, market, legislative, and society and consumers). We further identify their interrelationships and integrate them into a holistic sustainable strategic management framework. Finally, we present six broader strategic recommendations building on the study framework.
10. Carbonaceous gas and aerosol emissions from biomass burning in China from 2012 to 2021
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132199
Open biomass burning (OBB) has significant impacts on air pollution, human health, and climate change. In recent years, the issue of OBB has been the subject of increasing research. However, the emissions of carbonaceous gases and aerosols (CGA) from OBB have received less attention, and the spatiotemporal characteristics and emissions of CGA remain poorly understood. In this study, an optimized Fire Radiative Power (FRP) algorithm was used to estimate the emissions of CGA from OBB in China. Then the spatiotemporal characteristics of CGA emissions from OBB across China from 2012 to 2021 were assessed. The results show that the annual average emissions of CGA in China from 2012 to 2021 were 239.74 Mt. The spatial distribution of CGA from OBB in China is concentrated in the Northeast, North, Southwest, and East regions. Across the study period, the trend of total national emissions was first increasing then decreasing, with a maximum in 2014, and a minimum in 2018. Emissions of CGA between 2012 and 2021 were dominated by the combustion of residues in agricultural land, which accounted for 50–65% of total CGA emissions. Crop residues open field burning and burning ban were also the main reason for the sharp increase of CGA in 2014 and dramatically reduced to a minimum in 2018. The study provides new insights into OBB and carbon neutrality. The results provide valuable information for stakeholders, allowing for the implementation of effective regional policies to reduce emissions of CGA in China.
11. Investigating the spatial variability of water security risk and its driving mechanisms in China using machine learning
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132303
Comprehensively analyzing the present condition of water security and its driving factors at a countrywide scale is of prime importance for systematically and spatially managing water resource in China. In this study, a countrywide and comprehensive water security risk (CWSR) was proposed and calculated as the average of water shortage degree, water pollution level, and water-related hazard risk at catchment unit. Considering the limitations associated with traditional regression-based frameworks in coping with collinearity that might produce regionally different relationships with multiple driving factors, a machine learning method (boost regression tree, BRT) and three machine-learning interpretable techniques were used to determine the mechanisms underlying the spatial variability of CWSR. Results showed that catchments in northern China generally have a higher CWSR than catchments in southern China. The Hai River Basin and its surrounding regions were found to face the most serious water security pressure. Such spatial distributions of CWSR were well predicted by the BRT model with six explanatory variables. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) had the largest influence on CWSR (relative importance of 40.3±2.8%), followed by human influence (Hi, 21.8±2.7%), average slope (S, 15.2±2.7%), river density (Rd, 9.3±1.7%), proportion of land covered by water (Pw, 7.5±1.6%), and river network connectivity (Rc, 5.9±1.1%). However, the relative order of importance of these six driving factors varied between regions, suggesting that the drivers of CWSR varied spatially. Three of the six factors had monotonic negative effects on CWSR including MAP, S, and Pw. CWSR significantly increased with Hi. The relationships of Rd and Rc with CWSR were relatively complex and non-monotonic. By jointly making use of machine learning and further interpretation methods, the spatial variability of water security risks in China and their underlying driving factors were determined, and a new framework for quantitatively understanding the complex mechanisms of regional water security was provided. The results of this study will be helpful in making recommendations for reducing CWSR in China.
12. Large scale application of carbon capture to process industries – A review
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132300
Carbon capture (CC), along with the efforts to reduce carbon emissions at the source, is a major action toward the mitigation of climate change and global warming due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Carbon emissions amount to 36.3 Gt-CO2 in 2021 from 31.5 Gt-CO2 in 2022, with a drop of about 1.5 Gt-CO2 in 2020 relative to 2019 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The carbon emissions originate from heat and power, transportation, process industries, and residential activities constitute 47.7, 24.9, 18.9, and 8.5% of the total emissions, respectively. The process industries represent the second large-scale point-source of carbon emissions next to heat and power. Additionally, the process industries have high-intensity carbon emissions up to 0.6–0.8 t-CO2/t-cement, 1.4–2 t-CO2/t-steel, and 2.7–99.2 kg CO2/bbl, with flue gas streams having high CO2 concentration up to 30%. In comparison to 0.4 t-CO2/MWh and 3–16% CO2 in the flue gas from heat and power facilities, these process industries present a highly effective target for CC application. This work reviews and critically discusses the large-scale application of CC to different process industries, namely, cement, iron and steel, oil refinery, and chemicals. CC can be achieved by three main approaches, i.e., post-combustion, pre-combustion, and oxyfuel combustion. Post-combustion and chemical-looping are the common CC approaches utilized in process industries, with the first being widely applied due to its ease of incorporation, and the latter is commonly used in the cement industry. CC with the capacity in the range of 0.4–2 Mt-CO2/yr is planned for cement plants relative to current capacities of 75 kt-CO2/yr. Similarly, CC capacity up to 0.8 Mt-CO2/yr has been integrated into iron and steel plants, in which captured CO2 is utilized for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. In the oil and gas industry, CC has been widely utilized, in the context of gas purification, being an essential gas processing unit, with CC capacities up to 1.4 Mt-CO2/yr, and plans to reach 4 Mt-CO2/yr. CC cost is the main challenge for the widespread implementation of CC in process industries with a wide range of reported costs of USD9.8-250/t-CO2 depending on the process industry and the CC technology used.
13. Innovations in Urban Green and Blue Infrastructure: Tackling local and global challenges in cities
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132355
Traditional engineering approaches alone (gray infrastructure) are not able to meet all the challenges of sustainability posed by growing urban population and consumption. Urban Green and Blue Infrastructure (GBI) can provide cost-effective treatments, and help the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, knowledge concerning how to innovate GBI strategically in cities remains limited. Together with the others in the special issue, this article aims to enhance understanding of the potential of city-based GBI to tackle local and global challenges practically, and provide theoretical discussions on sustainable transitions and future research on urban GBI. Via envisioning and implementation of integrated urban innovations for GBI, the ecosystem services derived from these nature-based solutions can contribute directly and indirectly to SDG achievement at various scales by increasing water and food security, reducing energy consumption, as by supporting urban biodiversity, health, and life quality. GBI can also contribute to discussions related to such emerging concepts as circular economy, urban transitions, and smart cities.
14. Global carbon transfer and emissions of aluminum production and consumption
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132513
Aluminum is the second most used metal after iron and steel worldwide, and its production is highly energy-intensive. It's increasingly important to focus on carbon reduction in the aluminum industry. The global aluminum cycle depends on international trade with great influence on the carbon distribution, but few studies have analyzed the aluminum industry from the perspective of carbon transfer. We analyze global carbon emissions and transfers from aluminum production, consumption, and trade from 2000 to 2018 to reveal the carbon distribution across regions and countries. The results show that 1) the aluminum trade carbon transfer increased from 99 to 114 Mt, mainly from resource-rich Oceania and Africa to faster-developing or developed regions such as Asia, Europe and North America, with a high degree of industrial concentration; 2) the carbon emissions of aluminum production increased from 363 to 1005 Mt, with China accounting for the largest share; 3) different countries had different consumption structure, and the northern hemisphere as the main consumption region has greater potential for recycling and emission reduction. There is a long way to go for the aluminum industry toward its low-carbon transition, and this study will provide important insights into carbon reduction in the global aluminum industry.
15. Dynamic evaluation of green development level of ASEAN region and its spatio-temporal patterns
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132402
Being one of the most dynamic economic regions of the world, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) confronts significant problems concerning environmental protection. To effectively promote sustainable growth of the ASEAN economy, each member state has shown enormous interest in fostering green development. Our study aims to evaluate the green development level of ASEAN member states for the period of 2010–2019. We employed the entropy weighting approach, combined with the spatio-temporal analysis to evaluate the current level, changing trends and spatial characteristics of the green development level of each ASEAN member. The findings of our study reveal that ASEAN members with a high degree of green development have a solid economic base and have placed a greater emphasis on the high-level coordinated development of economy, society, and environment. In contrast, ASEAN members with a modest level of green development face dual challenges from low economic growth and environmental preservation. Further, for ASEAN members with a low degree of green development, rapid economic expansion is accompanied by enormous pressure from environmental limitations. Based on the research findings, our study advances the understanding of the green development status in the ASEAN region and presents policy implications for the ASEAN member states.
16. Can policy implementation increase public waste sorting behavior? The comparison between regions with and without waste sorting policy implementation in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132401
Waste threatens human health and the environment. Public participation, as an essential link in the whole waste management chain, is important for countries to achieve carbon neutrality and promote sustainable development. However, some countries are still in the initial stage of policy practice, for example, China's waste sorting policy is still in the pilot stage and has not yet covered the whole country. Therefore, it is necessary to understand whether waste sorting policy has a catalytic effect on public waste sorting behavior, and based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, knowledge and intention were proposed to have chain-mediating effect. With a large-sample national survey, we compared the differences in public waste sorting behavior between areas with and without waste sorting policies and examined the mechanism. Results showed that the public in areas with waste sorting policies participated more in actual waste sorting behavior than the public in areas without waste sorting policies, and the proposed effects of knowledge and intention were verified. The research results provide valuable insights for policymakers and stakeholders from multiple perspectives of policy implementation, policy instruments, and population differences.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Drought risk and water resources assessment in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154915
Drought is a natural disaster that can influence all aspects of human life owing to its extensive and long-term implications. Global warming and rapid economic development have led to an increase in the drought risk. Meanwhile, rural communities are more drought-susceptible due to their greater closeness to nature and agriculture-based economies. Therefore, the scientific drought risk assessment and water resource utilization are of great significance. Drought risk refers to the potential losses from hazards imposed by drought events, which are a result of combined hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. This study focuses on drought risks in rural areas to provide references for risk assessment, disaster prevention, and water resource allocation. We chose the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (where is water-scarce and suffers severe drought disasters) as the study area. We used the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) to define the drought events and to extract the drought duration (D) and drought severity (S) according to the run theory. We also established three vulnerability curves based on the loss data, and assessed the risk of the primary industry, rural population, and cultivated areas, then superimposed it on the spatial distribution of water resources. The results indicated that Beijing has a high level of urbanization with a relatively low drought risk, and there are some high-risk areas in Tianjin and southeastern Hebei. Domestic water consumption is stable, and agricultural consumption has decreased. With the rapid increase in green areas in recent years, ecological water consumption has also increased. It has less water and a high-risk level of drought in southern areas. It is crucial to construct emergency water source projects for drought relief and make efficient use of limited water resources available.
2. Identification of key water parameters and microbiological compositions triggering intensive N2O emissions during landfill leachate treatment process
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 10 August 2022, 155135
Landfill leachate treatment processes tend to emit more N2O compared to domestic wastewater treatment. This discrepancy may be ascribed to leachate water characteristics such as high refractory COD, ammonium (NH4+) content, and salinity. In this work, the leachate influent was varied to examine the N2O emission scenarios. NH4+-N, COD, and Cl− concentrations ranged between 1000–2500, 1000–10,000, and 500–3000 mg L−1, respectively. Simultaneously, we attempted to combine statistical analysis with high-throughput sequencing to understand the microbial mechanism with regards to N2O emission. Results show that the strong N2O emissions occur in the nitrifying tank due to the intensive aeration. The system receiving the lowest COD shows the maximum N2O emission factor of 42.7% of the removed nitrogen. Both redundancy analysis and a structural equation model verify that insufficient degradable organics are the key water parameter triggering intensive N2O emission within the designed influent limits. Furthermore, two essential but non-abundant functional bacteria, Flavobacterium (acting as a denitrifier) and Nitrosomonas (acting as a nitrifier), are identified as the core functional species that dramatically influence N2O emissions. An increase in influent COD promotes the proliferation of Flavobacterium and inhibits Nitrosomonas, which in turn reduce N2O release. Meanwhile, two keystone species of Castellaniella and Saprospiraceae unclassified are recognized. They may supply a suitable niche and integrity of the microbial community for N-cycle functional bacteria. These findings reveal the essential role of non-abundant species in microbial community, and expand the current understanding of microbial interactions underlying N2O dynamics in leachate treatment systems.
3. Residential greenspace and early childhood development and academic performance: A longitudinal analysis of Australian children aged 4–12 years
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 10 August 2022, 155214
Exposure to greenspaces has beneficial effects on children's mental health and development. This study explores the association between residential exposure to greenspace and early childhood development and academic outcomes.
Children were from Mothers and their Children's Health (MatCH) study, a sub-study of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. We obtained data on early childhood development from the Australian Early Development Census (AEDC), a population-wide census data (n = 936 children, mean age: 5.3, SD: 0.5 years). Academic performance relative to the national minimum standard (NMS) (i.e., in reading, writing, grammar and punctuation, spelling, and numeracy) of children with Year 3 and 5 data were from the ‘National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy’ (NAPLAN) (n = 1679 children). Annual exposure to green and non-green vegetation was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and fractional cover of non-photosynthetic vegetation (fNPV), respectively, within 100 m and 500 m buffer zone of maternal residential address. We calculated greenspace exposure at the year of test and average exposure throughout childhood. Greenspace exposures were standardised and odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using generalised estimating equation models, adjusting for potential confounders.
Exposure to fNPV within 500 m buffer of homes at the year of test and during child's lifetime was associated with academic scores below/at NMS at Year 3 (baseline) and Year 5 (follow-up) for the domains of reading, writing, and grammar and punctuation. Surrounding residential greenness was not significantly associated with NAPLAN scores. No association was found between residential greenspace and developmental vulnerability on one or more AEDC domains across both exposure windows.
Our study revealed that long-term and short-term exposure to non-green vegetation around homes is linked to poor academic performance in children. Further research on fNPV is required to verify these findings, with additional longitudinal studies.
4. Urban warming increases the temperature sensitivity of spring vegetation phenology at 292 cities across China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 834, 15 August 2022, 155154
Urban spring phenology changes governed by multiple biological and environmental factors significantly impact urban ecosystem functions and services. However, the temporal changes in spring phenology (i.e., the start of the vegetation growing season, SOS) and the magnitude of SOS sensitivity to temperature in urban settings are not well understood compared with natural ecosystems. Therefore, we explored warming impacts on SOS across 292 rural and urban areas from 2001 to 2016. We found that warming occurred in 79.9% of urban areas and 61.3% of rural areas. This warming advanced SOS in 78.3% of the urban settings and 72.8% of the rural areas. The accelerated rate of SOS in urban settings was significantly higher (−0.52 ± 0.86 days/year) than in rural areas (−0.09 ± 0.69 days/year). Moreover, SOS was significantly more sensitive to warming in urban areas (−2.86 ± 3.57 days/°C) than in rural areas (−1.57 ± 3.09 days/°C), driven by urban-rural differences in climatic (precipitation, temperature, and warming speed) and vegetation factors. Precipitation contributed the most had the highest relative importance for controlling SOS, at 45% and 63% for urban and rural areas, respectively. These findings provide a new understanding of the impacts of urbanization and climate change on vegetation phenology. Moreover, our results have implications for urban environment impacts on ecosystems and human health.
5. Urbanization hampers biological control of insect pests: A global meta-analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 834, 15 August 2022, 155396
Biological control is a major ecosystem service provided by pest natural enemies, even in densely populated areas where the use of pesticides poses severe risks to human and environmental health. However, the impact of urbanization on this service and the abundance patterns of relevant functional groups of arthropods (herbivores, predators, and parasitoids) remain contested. Here, we synthesize current evidence through three hierarchical meta-analyses and show that advancing urbanization leads to outbreaks of sap-feeding insects, declining numbers of predators with low dispersal abilities, and weakened overall biological pest control delivered by arthropods. Our results suggest that sedentary predators may have the potential to effectively regulate sap-feeders, that are one of the most important pests in urban environments. A well-connected network of structurally diverse and rich green spaces with less intensive management practices is needed to promote natural plant protection in urban landscapes and sustainable cities.
6. Occurrence, source apportionment, and pollution assessment of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in a river across rural and urban areas
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155505
Forty-three novel and legacy per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in water and sediments from the Chaobai River (Beijing) were quantified. The total PFASs concentrations varied from 0.04 to 31.3 ng/L in water with significant spatial but insignificant seasonal variations, and changed from 0.03 to 4.29 ng/g in sediment with insignificant spatial but significant seasonal variations. The PFASs concentrations in water from the upstream across the rural area reflected the background level due to the extremely low concentration and very few detected PFASs. The consumer products and metal plating/textile were the predominant pollution sources of PFASs in winter and summer, respectively, for both water and sediment samples. Integrating the determined baseline value, the distribution of PFASs concentrations, and the ecological risks of PFASs, three criteria were proposed, which divide the PFASs concentrations in water into four pollution levels, i.e., insignificant, low, medium, and high. According to the suggested criteria, 96.4% of the PFASs levels in upstream was insignificant pollution, which decreased to 50.4% in downstream and 50.8% in reservoirs. The PFASs in China's and world's surface waters demonstrated similar pollution patterns, with PFOA, PFOS, and PFHxA being the top 3 polluted PFASs. This study makes a small step forward the development of water quality standard for PFASs, which is of great importance for pollution control and risk management of PFASs.
7. Anthropogenic rare earth elements in urban lakes: Their spatial distributions and tracing application
Chemosphere, Volume 300, August 2022, 134534
Anthropogenic activities associated with various new technologies are increasingly disrupting the geochemical cycles of rare earth elements (REEs). For example, samarium (Sm) and gadolinium (Gd) have emerged as microcontaminants in the natural waters of developed areas. Surface water samples of 13 urban lakes were collected in Wuhan, the largest city in central China, with a population of over 11 million. The aim of this study was to examine to what extent REE anomalies occur and the relationship between the concentration of anthropogenic REEs in lakes and the surrounding environment. In this study, based on land-use type and point of interest (POIs) data, buffer extraction, density estimation and Spearman correlation analysis were first proposed to identify different sources of anthropogenic REEs, which mainly included hospitals, factories, population, urban land and cropland. The PAAS-normalized REE patterns indicate that all lake samples display pronounced positive Sm and Gd anomalies, ranging from 5.92 to 19.88 and 1.73 to 14.97, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that hospital density was positively correlated with anthropogenic Gd concentration, and a positive relationship between proportion of cropland and the concentration of anthropogenic Sm. By utilizing Gdanth, Smanth, and the conventional ion ratio (NO3−/Cl−), a three-dimensional tracer system was established, and the system accurately obtained a characterization of the impact of WWTPs, hospitals, factories and agriculture on the lakes. Moreover, the results from this hydrochemical method were consistent with the analysis of geographic information systems, which indicated that this anthropogenic contaminant as a tracer was reliable for analysing the source of urban water pollution.
8. Heavy metal leaching behaviour and long-term environmental risk assessment of cement-solidified municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in sanitary landfill
Chemosphere, Volume 300, August 2022, 134571
Cement solidification is a commonly used pre-treatment method for municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA) prior to sanitary landfill. However, the long-term environmental risk of cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks in the exposed scenario of zoning sanitary landfill remains unclear. In this study, the leaching characteristics of different heavy metals in cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks under deionized water and acid rain scenarios were firstly investigated. The leaching control mechanisms of heavy metals were also explored and applied to established mechanical models for the estimation of long-term environmental risk. Results revealed that Pb leaching from cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks was controlled by diffusion; Cu, Cr and As leaching was mainly controlled by surface wash-off and diffusion; and Ni leaching was mainly controlled by diffusion and dissolution. Additionally, the established bulk diffusion, first-order reaction/diffusion and diffusion/dissolution models could accurately fit the abovementioned three types of heavy metals with different leaching control mechanisms (R2 > 0.95). Under acid rain scenarios， according to the prediction results of the calibrated models, the cumulative leaching amount of Pb in 718 d was higher than the limit in GB16889-2008, the cumulative leaching amount of Cu, Cr, As and Ni did not exceed the limit in GB 16889-2008 even in 50 years. Therefore, the long-term environmental risk was relatively high for Pb but was low for Cu, Cr, As and Ni in cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks. This finding could be attributed to the strong alkali environment of cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks (pH > 12) that induced Pb salts (e.g. Pb(OH)2 and PbSO4) dissolution. Therefore, the removal of partially soluble Pb salts from freshly made cement-solidified MSWIFA blocks by water or natural rainwater (e.g. without final cover system) washing in the initial landfilling stage (e.g. the leachate drainage system remains functional) is an effective countermeasure to reduce the environmental risks in zoning sanitary landfill.
9. Road runoff as a significant nonpoint source of parabens and their metabolites in urban rivers
Chemosphere, Volume 301, August 2022, 134632
Parabens are widely added to food, cosmetics, and medicines as preservatives and are typical contaminants of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). However, their fate and transport in urban watersheds remain largely unexplored. This study investigated the role of road runoff as a critical nonpoint source of parabens and their metabolites in urban rivers based on 73 multimedia (road runoff and dust in different urban land uses, wastewater, stormwater discharge and river water) samples collected from a highly urbanized drainage area. Seven parabens and five metabolites were detected in the road runoff, with mean concentrations of ∑parabens and ∑metabolites equal to 47.5 ng/L and 4710 ng/L, respectively. The concentrations in road runoff were comparable to those in treated wastewater and river water and showed a land use pattern of residential > industrial > commercial. A first flush effect of the contaminants was observed in a heavy rainfall event with an antecedent dry period. In general, the population-based and area-based emission intensities of ∑parabens and ∑metabolites in road runoff were one order of magnitude higher than those in wastewater effluent during the rainfall events. This study provides quantitative evidence that road runoff can be a major pollution source of parabens and their metabolites in rapidly growing cities during the wet season and calls for the integrated management of nonpoint sources to prevent urban river contamination by typical PPCPs.
10. Removal of organochlorine pesticides and metagenomic analysis by multi-stage constructed wetland treating landfill leachate
Chemosphere, Volume 301, August 2022, 134761
Constructed wetlands (CWs) can effectively treat landfill leachate (LL). However, there is limited research on the removal of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) refractory organics during LL treatment in CWs. In this study, multi-stage subsurface flow CWs was used to treat LL, and the removal fate of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in CWs was investigated. The structural differences between plant roots and substrate microbial communities were compared and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) metabolic pathway of organic matter was analyzed based on metagenomic analysis. The results showed that substrate adsorption (50.55%–72.74%) and microbial degradation (20.38%–27.89%) were the main ways to remove OCPs. The Proteobacteria occupied a dominant position in the CWs system, among which Betaproteobacteria (34.37%–35.90%) were contained in the substrate, and Alphaproteobacteria (21.19%–23.84%) was a more dominant microorganism in plant roots. Formaldehyde assimilation and serine pathway were the main pathways of methane metabolism. This study provides a reference for the removal mechanism of OCPs to promote the application of CWs technology in LL treatment.
11. How does the metabolic network change as cities turn into urban agglomerations? A case study of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 361, 10 August 2022, 132152
Whether the focus of urban ecological and environmental regulation is consistent with that of multi-level management and control has become an increasingly important issue for the ecological management of urban agglomeration, which is particularly critical at the beginning of construction of urban agglomerations. In this study, to identify the structural and functional differences of the metabolic network at two scales of city and urban agglomeration, a multi-level nested urban agglomeration network model was established from the perspective of material metabolism process. Taking the initial stage of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration as a case, this study used the ecological network analysis method to quantitatively simulate the flow distribution and ecological relationship between the nodes, and compared the results at the two scales. The results showed that the influence of scale enlargement on the flow distribution was very limited, because the flows on the cross-city paths only accounted for less than 3%. At both scales, manufacturing → environment was the most important path type. It was the path type with the largest flows in 8 of 13 cities and carried most flow in the urban agglomeration. With the expansion of the scale, the environment sector and household consumption no longer had a prominent proportion of exploitation/control, while the advantages of mutualism emerged in the energy conversion and environment. These results at different scales can provide a theoretical basis for the regulation of material metabolism and the coordinated cleaner production and consumption of urban agglomerations in the aspects of positioning key metabolic processes and strengthening cross-city complementarity and reciprocity.
12. How do corporate social responsibility and green innovation transform corporate green strategy into sustainable firm performance?
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132228
In the context of today's dynamic world with the development of technology, running a green-oriented business for long-term viability is no longer an option, particularly for businesses in general and small-medium enterprises (SMEs) for long-term viability and sustainability. The present research examines the relationship between corporate green strategy and sustainable firm performance for SMEs by exploring the mediating role of corporate social responsibility and green innovation in the given context in an emerging economy. This study applies a quantitative approach by using a well-structured questionnaire for data collection. The target respondents were managers at senior and middle levels. There were 469 valid responses obtained from the main survey. The final data was included in the analysis using Smart PLS (version 3.3.2) Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to investigate the relationships between constructs and latent variables and provides an extension to the current literature by providing an integrated model of corporate green strategy, green corporate social responsibility, green innovation and sustainable firm performance. In addition, the model's application to the emerging economy reinforces the originality of this study. This study therefore provides an integration of "three green” elements in a model which is also unexplored by the extant literature. Specifically, green strategy, green corporate social responsibility and green innovation are integrated, aiming to facilitate enterprises, improve environmental performance, enhance sustainable competitive advantages and achieve firm sustainability. Moreover, this study provides strategic thinking for long-term business development towards a sustainable balance of economic, social and environmental benefits, through which business leaders are encouraged to consider practical actions carefully to improve environmental performance as this is certain to develop business competitiveness and achieve sustainable business performance.
13. Green roof as an effective tool for sustainable urban development: An Australian perspective in relation to stormwater and building energy management
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 362, 15 August 2022, 132561
Green infrastructure could provide a suite of benefits, including stormwater management and climate change impact mitigation. While European countries, the USA and Canada are increasingly adopting green roofs, Australia is lagging behind. This study specifically reviews the performance of green roofs in terms of stormwater retention, runoff quality, building energy consumption and life cycle cost analysis, as well as policy development in the Australian context. Research studies on these topics within Australia are identified, collated and analysed with respect to other studies reported by reputable research groups in other countries, where the green roof system has already matured. It should be mentioned that the results related to energy consumption were from simulation studies and empirical evidence derived from limited case studies, as reported in the literature. This study found that the average water retention capacity (worldwide) of a green roof is around 66.2%, which is within to the values (60–70%) reported in Australian studies. Because of the high water retention capacity, green roofs limit the export of pollution for most storm events. But when green roofs are saturated, they may be a source of pollution. However, the concentration of the pollutant decreases significantly over time. The temperature reduction by green roofs in buildings ranges between 4 and 6 °C. There is a potential for energy savings in building heating and cooling, but the findings from the literature are highly variable (ranges between 9 and 50%). The average payback period reported for a green roof is about 16 years. However, this depends on the initial cost, maintenance and assumed discount rate in the study. It has been shown that government policies and public awareness are important to increase the green roof adoption rate. Finally, current challenges in adopting this technology and future research directions are summarised.
14. Contradiction or coordination? The spatiotemporal relationship between landscape ecological risks and urbanization from coupling perspectives in China
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 363, 20 August 2022, 132557
Rapid urbanization in developing countries has been shown to have higher intensities of development and more frequent human-ecosystem interactions. Urbanization in China is highly representative of such development, and given its magnitude, poses severe risks if not irreversible consequences to the sustainability of natural ecosystem. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has highlighted the necessity for humanity to live in harmony with ecosystems for achieving a sustainable state. Evaluating the coupling states between urbanization and ecological risks and identifying the distribution of coordinated and unbalanced types are two crucial steps for ensuring sustainability. To date, nonetheless, there is a scarcity of macro and overall assessment of ecological risk for the whole China at a finer resolution. This study combined landscape pattern indices to better reveal the state of landscape ecological risk (LER) at a grid scale of 10km × 10km in 1990–2015 for entire China. Considering the geographical differences, this study further evaluated how the urbanization factors of population density (PD), GDP density (GDPD), build-up land proportion (BLP), comprehensive urbanization level (CUL) led to major LER changes in different regions, using a geographical detector model (GDM). Finally, the coupling coordination degree (CCD) between LER and its dominated urbanization factors of different regions was investigated. The results show that the urbanization intensified the LER, and risk hot-spots were mostly distributed in the southeast of China dominated with high levels of urbanization. In addition, LER hot-spots were more concentrated in aquatic, cultivated land and build-up land. The major urbanization factors affecting China's LER included PD, BLP and CUL. More important, the CCD level between three urbanization factors and LER improved with time, but most parts of China remained in an unbalanced development state. Through the identified regional differences of coupling coordination types, the degree of contradiction between local urbanization and LER can be known, so as to harmonize the environment and humanity.
15. Lowering mortality risks in urban areas by containing atmospheric pollution
Environmental Research, Volume 211, August 2022, 113096
Although studies collectively examining the traffic and residential heat pollutant emissions are abundant, research investigations dedicated to Cyprus are scarce. This investigation has simulated the levels of air pollutants, namely, CO, NOx, PM2.5, and PM10 and reconciled them with actual air quality measurements in Nicosia, Cyprus, during a 9-month period at an hourly resolution. To this end, several scenarios and cases were formulated to tackle emissions and minimise human mortality risks in the city.
The GRAL dispersion model was used to project pollution levels. Nine different traffic scenarios were devised to estimate variations in concentration of PM2.5 and NOx under various policies, such as banning diesel passenger vehicles (PV), light duty vehicles (LDV), non-Euro 6 standards vehicles, stringent speed limits and a ubiquitous roll-out of electric passenger vehicles. Moreover, 4 distinct cases were analysed to year 2030 considering a fluctuation in traffic of ±20% whereas all vehicles conform to Euro 6 standards. Three additional policies examined the prohibition of diesel PV and LDV, 80% electric PV and outlawing fireplaces. Drawing on the findings of these scenarios and cases, the total cardiovascular and respiratory mortality rates at the capital of Cyprus, Nicosia, were deduced.
The most promising scenario in terms of curbing emissions was to ban non-Euro 6 vehicles and diesel PV and LDV which could contain average NOx concentration, in Nicosia, from 52.9 μg/m3 to 15.0 μg/m3. If this policy were to be implemented, it could have saved 70% of the premature deaths tied to NOx emissions. For particulate matter, banning fireplaces and abandoning non-Euro 6 vehicles could lower average concentrations from 18.3 μg/m3 to 13.1 μg/m3, saving at least 30% of the people poised to lose their lives from particulate matter risks.
Traffic and residential heat policies are not easy to implement. However, our study has demonstrated that the most effective policies for curbing NOx emissions would be to ensure that all vehicles abide with the Euro 6 standards and, concurrently, ban diesel passenger and light duty vehicles. Lastly, phasing out domestic fireplaces appears to be the most promising solution for containing particulate matter, in 2030.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Performance of ash from Amazonian biomasses as an alternative source of essential plant nutrients: An integrated and eco-friendly strategy for industrial waste management in the lack of raw fertilizer materials
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 360, 1 August 2022, 132222
The increasing use of Amazonian biomass as a bioenergy source has contributed to the increased demand for fertilizers and the production of a large amount of ash. In addition to facing the challenges of an insufficient supply of agricultural inputs, the Amazon region has also faced problems in managing industrial wastes, which are not well characterized and for which few recycling options are available. Within this context, this study aimed to expand the knowledge regarding the use of Amazonian biomass ash, for which an integrative system between bioenergy and fertilizer production and waste management was proposed. This study evaluated ash applied as an alternative fertilizer, focusing on the availability and uptake of nutrients and heavy metals in acidic soils and the P dynamics using 31P-NMR. Three soils with different SOM values were treated with one of three doses of mineral fertilizer, namely, ash (35 Mg ha−1), phosphate fertilizer (2 Mg ha−1), or a mixture of ash and phosphate (35 and 2 Mg ha−1, respectively), and Avena sativa was grown to verify plant availability and the treatment effect on growth. The experiment was conducted for 60 d in a growth chamber. The ash application in pure form and mixed with phosphate slightly increased the pH (0.3–0.5 unit) and promoted significant increases in the availability of P (∼212%), Ca (∼165%), Mg (∼110%), and K (∼32%). In SOM-rich soils, the high microbial activity favored the transformation of inorganic P into organic P (2–21%), preventing fixation. The ash applications promoted positive effects on biomass production (∼62%) and increased the uptake of P (∼306%), Ca (∼181%), Mg (∼131%), and K (∼38%). Thus, Amazon biomass ash could be an alternative fertilizer source, representing a sustainable option for local socioeconomic development and the establishment of a circular economy system.
2. Synthesis and characterization of rGO supported silver doped bimetallic ZnCo2O4 spinel oxides for enhanced photocatalytic degradation of industrial effluents
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Volume 913, 25 August 2022, 165164
In the current report, Silver doped Zinc Cobaltite (AgZnCo2O4, AgZCO) nanoparticles have been synthesized through a solvent-free strategy. Synthesized AgZCO nanoparticles were integrated with the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets to prepare the [email protected] composite. Structural and morphological properties of ZCO, AgZCO, and [email protected] were studied by various physio-chemical techniques. X-rays diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that all prepared samples possess face-centered cubic crystal structures with crystallite sizes of 5.79 nm, 5.27 nm, and 5.16 nm for ZCO, AgZCO, and [email protected], respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis displayed that small spherical nanoparticles of AgZCO were wrapped inside rGO, along with some of the particles present on the surface of rGO sheets. FT-IR characterization showed the presence of all necessary vibrational modes. The results of the photocatalytic experiment showed that 41.97%, 58.02%, and 75.30% MB dye was degraded by the ZCO, AgZCO, and [email protected] respectively. 65.06% methyl orange dye was degraded by the [email protected] and it showed the highest percentage degradation with a higher kinetic rate than ZCO and AgZCO catalysts.
3. Greenwashing in the US metal industry? A novel approach combining SO2 concentrations from satellite data, a plant-level firm database and web text mining
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155512
This study deals with the issue of greenwashing, i.e. the false portrayal of companies as environmentally friendly. The analysis focuses on the US metal industry, which is a major emission source of sulfur dioxide (SO2), one of the most harmful air pollutants. One way to monitor the distribution of atmospheric SO2 concentrations is through satellite data from the Sentinel-5P programme, which represents a major advance due to its unprecedented spatial resolution. In this paper, Sentinel-5P remote sensing data was combined with a plant-level firm database to investigate the relationship between the US metal industry and SO2 concentrations using a spatial regression analysis. Additionally, this study considered web text data, classifying companies based on their websites in order to depict their self-portrayal on the topic of sustainability. In doing so, we investigated the topic of greenwashing, i.e. whether or not a positive self-portrayal regarding sustainability is related to lower local SO2 concentrations. Our results indicated a general, positive correlation between the number of employees in the metal industry and local SO2 concentrations. The web-based analysis showed that only 8% of companies in the metal industry could be classified as engaged in sustainability based on their websites. The regression analyses indicated that these self-reported ”sustainable” companies had a weaker effect on local SO2 concentrations compared to their "non-sustainable” counterparts, which we interpreted as an indication of the absence of general greenwashing in the US metal industry. However, the large share of firms without a website and lack of specificity of the text classification model were limitations to our methodology.
4. Investigating the eco-efficiency of China's textile industry based on a firm-level analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 833, 10 August 2022, 155075
Industrial eco-efficiency has been an invaluable measurement for the relationship between production activities and environmental depletion, which is important to investigate when aiming for sustainable development. For the textile industry, however, limited rigorous studies have comprehensively evaluated the eco-efficiency from a firm-level perspective, and research on multi-level comparisons of the sub-sectors has also been lacking. Given the differences in environmental impacts due to the selection of various raw materials and unstandardized production processes in the textile industry, we focused on three sub-sectors, i.e., the cotton, chemical fibers textile sector (CCTS), the non-cotton textile sector (NCTS), and the printing and dyeing sector (PDS). By applying the slacks-based measure (SBM) model based on the principle of the data envelopment analysis (DEA), i.e., the SBM-DEA model, the eco-efficiency of China's textile industry was measured at the firm level from 2001 to 2011 using a large sample dataset. We then further analyzed the factors affecting eco-efficiency using the Tobit regression model. An empirical analysis showed an upward trend of eco-efficiency over time in the eastern, central, and western regions of China with great disparities for the three sub-sectors. Analyses of the typical provinces in the eastern region all showed increasing trends in eco-efficiency, with Shandong Province consistently performing the best. We also found that large-scale firms had the highest annual average eco-efficiency than that of small- and medium-scale firms. For the influencing factors on the eco-efficiency, our results indicated that the economic scale and export delivery value both had a significant positive correlation with the eco-efficiency, while foreign direct investment and environmental regulation were both significantly negative for the eco-efficiency in all three sub-sectors. These findings provide valuable insights into helping the textile industry address high-quality green development and sustainability.
5. Spatio-vertical distribution of riverine microplastics: Impact of the textile industry
Environmental Research, Volume 211, August 2022, 112789
Microplastics (MPs) contamination in rivers and lakes is of paramount environmental importance as freshwater systems transport MPs from land to ocean. However, information regarding the spatio-vertical distributions of MPs in rivers, and their associations with surrounding industrial activities, is scarce and unclear. This study investigated MPs in the Taipu River, where there is a highly developed textile industry in Yangtze River Delta, China. Results showed a widespread occurrence of MPs particles with concentrations in the range of 0.65–6.07 items/L and 0.30–3.63 items/L in surface and bottom waters. A higher abundance of MPs was observed in surface waters than in bottom waters (t = 5.423, p = 0.024). The MPs distributions varied markedly in space, with the highest abundances being found in textile manufacturing zones as a consequence of industrial release (F = 14.642, p < 0.001). Transparent fibers were the major MPs compositions with 100–500 μm in size. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) accounted for 71.4% and 59.73% of the total MPs identified in surface and bottom water, respectively. These PET polymers were predominantly presented in "fibrous” shapes, further reflecting the point sources of textile wastewater. Moreover, polyvinyl acetate (PVAC), used as fabric coating and resin matrix to form nonwoven fabrics, was firstly highlighted at a watershed scale. Although risk assessments revealed a light to moderate risks of MPs in the Taipu River, textile wastewater appears to cause a high "grey water” footprint and increase the risks of MPs pollution from textile life-cycle production. This study bridged gaps between field data and policy-making for MPs control and shed insight into the cleaner production of the textile industry.
6. Challenges of the UK government and industries regarding emission control after ICE vehicle bans
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 835, 20 August 2022, 155406
Over the last few decades, the annual air pollutants from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles have dropped significantly, benefiting from the implementation of strict emission regulations and the development of vehicle technology. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions from transport sectors contributed more than 32% and 12% of annual total emissions. Although hazardous exhaust emissions from ICE vehicles will be reduced after the bans on ICE vehicle sales in 2030, sustainable technology development of ICE vehicles is still necessary to meet the future challenges. After-treatment retrofitting technology and Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) are particularly important measures to deal with the deterioration of engines and after-treatment systems.
7. Development of an inter-confirmatory plastic characterization system using spectroscopic techniques for waste management
Waste Management, Volume 150, 1 August 2022, Pages 339-351
Ever-accumulating amounts of plastic waste raises alarming concern over environmental and public health. A practical solution for addressing this threat is recycling, and the success of an industry-oriented plastic recycling system relies greatly on the accuracy of the waste sorting technique adapted. We propose a multi-modal spectroscopic sensor which combines laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy in a single optical platform for characterizing plastics based on elemental and molecular information to assist the plastic identification-sorting process in recycling industries. The unique geometry of the system makes it compact and cost-effective for dual spectroscopy. The performance of the system in classifying industrially important plastic classes counting PP, PC, PLA, Nylon-1 1, and PMMA is evaluated, followed by the application of the same in real-world plastics comprising PET, HDPE, and PP in different chemical-physical conditions where the system consumes less than 30 ms for acquiring LIBS-Raman signals. The evaluation of the system in characterizing commuting samples shows promising results to be applied in industrial conditions in future. The study on effect of physical–chemical conditions of plastic wastes in characterizing them using the system shows the necessity for combining multiple techniques together. The proposal is not to determine the paramount methodology to characterize and sort plastics, but to demonstrate the advantages of dual-spectroscopy sensors in such applications. The outcomes of the study suggest that the system developed herein has the potential of emerging as an industrial-level plastic waste sorting sensor.
8. A critical review on cadmium recovery from wastewater towards environmental sustainability
Desalination, Volume 535, 1 August 2022, 115815
In this contemporary era, due to the growth of the world's population, fast progress of modern industries all over the world and comprehensible limitation of the world's freshwater reserves for the future, desalination of saline wastewater, to supply freshwater and resource recovery, has become increasingly vital. Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal with different industrial applications, while the solution including Cd compounds is highly toxic, even in very small amounts. Due to its solubility in water, Cd can enter aquatic ecosystems and endanger them. Thus, Cd is investigated as a dangerous and carcinogenic metal in the environment and has a negative effect on various tissues of the human body. Therefore, Cd recovery from aqueous media and saline wastewater is very crucial. In this review, different methods for Cd removal and recovery from saline wastewaters, including conventional to some novel innovative methods, have comprehensively been reviewed. Also, suitable, objective and scientific comparisons have critically been performed among different strategies for Cd removal.
9. A sustainability assessment model for industrial parks: A Choquet integral aggregation approach
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 316, 15 August 2022, 115165
This study deals with subject sustainability assessment for industrial parks which are seen as systems of interrelated companies and infrastructures. Although sustainability was introduced into mainstream policy discourse several decades ago, it remains complex to assess, and thus to improve in an integrated way. This is particularly true for such elaborate structures as industrial parks. However, the literature has made little effort to present tools for industrial parks managers to take decisions towards sustainability. The paper develops a sustainability assessment framework aimed at industrial parks' managers. The model is based on a multi-criteria compromise aggregation principle and relies on a preliminary systemic deployment of industrial park sustainability. The presented assessment uses a double aggregation mechanism using the weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) and the Choquet integral (CI) to account for the interrelations between stakeholders involved in an industrial park. This double aggregation results in two level of assessment, offering a more comprehensive view of the examined industrial park. A first level of assessment allows managers to control and improve the performance of their industrial parks in each pillar of sustainability. The second level is the assessment of the overall sustainability, which supports the managers' analysis of their strategy to achieve sustainability. As an illustration, the model is used to assess the sustainability of a Canadian industrial park. Application of the model shows that the completion of the studied industrial park's action plan results in reaching a 54% sustainability performance considering the managers' long-term sustainability strategy and that their vision of sustainability moderately favors the simultaneous satisfaction of economic criteria with environmental or social criteria. These results illustrates the capacity of the model to guide managers in the sustainable development of their industrial parks.
10. Study on the evaluation of ecological compensation effect for environmental pollution loss from energy consumption: Taking Nanjing MV Industrial Park as an example
Environmental Technology & Innovation, Volume 27, August 2022, 102473
In order to explore the effective method of the ecological compensation effect evaluation (ECEE) for environmental pollution loss (EPL) in industrial parks, based on the literature review and the current situation analysis, a total of 26 evaluation indicators in 4 kinds have been selected in this paper to build an evaluation indicator system. The spatial niche suitability model (SNSM) is reconstructed after analysis and improvement. Then, taking Nanjing MV Industrial Park as an example, SNSM and related research data have been used to perform an application test of ECEE. The evaluation results show that the ecological compensation effect for EPL in Nanjing MV Industrial Park from 2013 to 2020 is on the rise, but the rising shows an uneven trend. The ecological compensation effect input status and ecological pollution status are obviously lagging behind, and are still the focus of future work in Nanjing MV Industrial Park. The study proves that the evaluation results of SNSM are consistent with the actual situation of Nanjing MV Industrial Park. This paper’s research results provide an effective quantitative analysis method for the management and the improvement of ecological compensation effect in industrial parks.
11. The economic study of centralised water reuse exchange system in the industrial park considering wastewater segregation
Computers & Chemical Engineering, Volume 164, August 2022, 107863
One possible solution to minimise freshwater consumption in the industrial sector is the reuse of treated wastewater from industry. In this paper, three mathematical models are presented to maximise the centralised system's profit by considering wastewater segregation with multiple contaminants. The idea of wastewater segregation was applied to classify different qualities of wastewater into multiple grades. The basic model was tested with a case study of scenarios with a different number of water headers for segregation and different desired qualities of regenerated water. The penalty models were tested with two different penalty rates when sudden flowrate fluctuations occurred on the source side. The results obtained showed that wastewater segregation can bring a high profit to the centralised system and provide significant freshwater savings to the industry. The analysis of penalties showed that penalties were necessary to ensure that the centralised system could make a profit and operate throughout the year.
12. An assessment of China's industrial emission characteristics using satellite observations of XCO2, SO2, and NO2
Atmospheric Pollution Research, Volume 13, Issue 8, August 2022, 101486
An effective assessment of industrial emission characteristics is necessary to formulate appropriate emission reduction measures. However, regular and complete emission reports are not always available. Therefore, this study aims to use satellite observations of atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the intensity, efficiency, industrial composition, and energy composition of industrial carbon emissions. Taking China as the study area, first, the XCO2 enhancement (△XCO2) and co-located SO2 and NO2 corresponding to the industrial land area were extracted based on the satellite data of OCO-2 (Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2) and Aura OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument). Then, the relationship between atmospheric pollutant composition and industrial emission characteristics in different regions is analyzed. Finally, an estimation model based on atmospheric pollution characteristics is constructed, and the characteristics of China’s industrial emissions in 2015 are evaluated. Results show that evaluating the specific emission characteristics is possible by using the comprehensive satellite observations of atmospheric pollutants, and the estimation results are in good agreement with the sectoral emission inventory. High NO2 and high emission intensity are mainly distributed in eastern China, while high SO2 and low emission efficiency are mainly distributed in the north. Furthermore, △XCO2 and NO2 are positively correlated with emission intensity and the proportion of emissions from the machinery industry, SO2 is negatively correlated with the proportion of chemical industry emissions, and SO2/NO2 is negatively correlated with emission efficiency and the proportion of light industry emissions. Results of the study show that the comprehensive satellite observation characteristics of atmospheric pollutants can be a reliable reference in evaluating industrial emission characteristics.
13. Spatial effects of industrial synergistic agglomeration and regional green development efficiency: Evidence from China
Energy Economics, Volume 112, August 2022, 106156
Collaborative industrial agglomeration has an important supporting role in improving the efficiency of regional green development. This paper examines the spatial spillover effects and mechanisms of industrial agglomeration on regional green development efficiency, from a spatial perspective. The research results show that: industrial synergistic agglomeration has a positive role in promoting regional green development, and has spatial agglomeration and spatial spillover effects. The level of green technological progress plays a more prominent role as a mediating effect in this process. The results of regional heterogeneity show that the impact of synergistic industrial agglomeration on the improvement of green development efficiency is higher in the central and western regions than in the eastern regions. This paper demonstrates the guiding role of productive services and manufacturing industries in green development, providing theoretical guidance for further institutional dividends in China's green development, and thus improving the level of regional green development.
14. Exploring potential machine learning application based on big data for prediction of wastewater quality from different full-scale wastewater treatment plants
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 154930
Water pollution generated from intensive anthropogenic activities has emerged as a critical issue concerning ecosystem balance and livelihoods worldwide. Although optimizing wastewater treatment efficiency is widely regarded as the foremost step to minimize pollutants released into the environment, this widespread application has encountered two major problems: firstly, the significant variation of influent wastewater constituents; secondly, complex treatment processes within wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Based on the data collected hourly using real-time sensors in three different full-scale WWTPs (24 h × 365 days × 3 WWTPs × 10 wastewater parameters), this work introduced the potential application of Machine Learning (ML) to predict wastewater quality. In this work, six different ML algorithms were examined and compared, varying from shallow to deep learning architectures including Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMAX), Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Gradient Tree Boosting (GTB), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). These models were developed to detect total phosphorus in the outlet (Outlet-TP), which served as an output variable due to the rising concerns about the eutrophication problem. Irrespective of WWTPs, SARIMAX consistently demonstrated the best performance for regression estimation as evidenced by the lowest values of Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and the highest coefficient of determination (R2). In terms of computation efficiency, SARIMAX exhibited acceptable time computation, acknowledging the successful application of this algorithm for Outlet-TP modeling. In contrast, the complex structure of LSTM made it time-consuming and unstable coupled with noise, while other shallower architectures, i.e., RF, SVM, GTB, and ANFIS were unable to address large datasets with nonlinear and nonstationary behavior. Consequently, this study provides a reliable and accurate approach to forecast wastewater effluent quality, which is pivotal in terms of the socio-economic aspects of wastewater management.
15. Sulfate radical based advanced oxidation processes for agro-industrial effluents treatment: A comparative review with Fenton's peroxidation
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 832, 1 August 2022, 155029
Agro-industrial wastewater management becomes a major task while environmental regulations are becoming stricter worldwide. Agro-industrial wastewaters are known by high content of organic pollutants that cause an adverse effect on the water bodies. Industries are looking for efficient, easy-to-use and affordable treatment processes. Sulfate radical based advanced oxidation processes (S-AOPs) are arising as suitable alternatives for agro-industrial effluents treatment. In this review, the major findings regarding the application of this technology for real agro-industrial wastewater depuration are discussed. Moreover, these technologies are compared as an alternative to Fenton's process, which is a widely studied advanced oxidation process and with high efficiency in the treatment of agro-industrial effluents. The studies already carried out are promising, but there is still a great lack of studies in this area and using this technique.
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