Công bố quốc tế trong lĩnh vực kiến trúc, xây dựng, đô thị (Kỳ 2)
Xin giới thiệu tới quý độc giả những nội dung chính của các công bố quốc tế đăng tải trên ScienceDirect và Springer Nature do Cục Thông tin khoa học và công nghệ quốc gia (NASATI) mua quyền truy cập
Trong số này chúng tôi xin giới thiệu tới quý độc giả những nội dung chính của các công bố quốc tế đăng tải trên ScienceDirect và Springer Nature do Cục Thông tin khoa học và công nghệ quốc gia (NASATI) mua quyền truy cập như sau:
Quy hoạch đô thị:
– Nhận thức trực quan toàn cảnh và xác định các yếu tố kiến trúc cảnh quan thành phố trong môi trường thực tế ảo
– Cơ sở hạ tầng xanh xanh, từ thị trường ngách đến thị trường chính: Thách thức và cơ hội quy hoạch ở Stockholm
– Không gian xanh đô thị: chiến lược thích ứng với biến đổi khí hậu cho các thành phố cận nhiệt đới châu Á
– Phân định tổ chức thứ bậc của các cụm đô thị đã được xếp hạng sử dụng mạng tương tác không gian
– Tính cạnh tranh, tính khác biệt và điểm kỳ dị trong thiết kế đô thị: Đánh giá có hệ thống và khuôn khổ cho các thành phố thông minh
Khoa học và công nghệ trong lĩnh vực xây dựng:
– Ảnh hưởng trung gian của ô nhiễm không khí trong tác động của hình thái đô thị lên cường độ đảo nhiệt đô thị vào ban đêm
– SHELTER – Yếu tố siêu chống chịu có cấu trúc đối với rủi ro do động đất
– Con đường tái sinh của các tòa nhà công nghiệp bị bỏ hoang
Vật liệu xây dựng:
– Những thay đổi về nồng độ và đặc tính của sợi amiăng phân tán từ tấm xi măng amiăng dạng sóng
– Phân tích việc sử dụng bê tông làm từ tro trấu trong lĩnh vực xây dựng
– Đặc tính kỹ thuật của vật liệu xây dựng với chất thải nhựa nóng chảy làm chất kết dính duy nhất
– Đánh giá các đặc tính nhiệt và hiệu suất hấp phụ acetaldehyde của vật liệu tổng hợp bền vững sử dụng gỗ thải và than sinh học
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUY HOẠCH ĐÔ THỊ
1. GIS-based hierarchical fuzzy multicriteria decision-making method for urban planning
Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing volume 12, pages601–615 (2021), Published: 07 May 2020
We present a new GIS-based fuzzy hierarchical MCDA for multiple assessments of land parcels in urban planning. In our model the criteria are decomposed in a hierarchical structure in which the leaf nodes are modelled with trapezoidal and triangular fuzzy sets on the universe of a specific characteristic of the parcel. The fuzzy set of a criterion is constructed as intersection of the fuzzy sets of the subcriteria in next hierarchical level that compose it. This approach has the advantage of managing complex evaluations of land parcels and facilitating the attribution of the degrees with which land parcels meet criteria. The proposed model has been experimented on a study area constituted by the municipality of Pozzuoli (Italy) in which the land parcels are the microzones in which the municipality is divided; we apply our method to assess which microzones are most suitable to increase the accommodation services of public primary school near them. Comparison of the results with expert assessments show that out method turns out to be reliable and consistent with the expert’s evaluations.
2. Urban planning and the market of development rights in Italy: learning from Milan
City, Territory and Architecture volume 8, Article number: 3 (2021), Published: 11 May 2021
In recent years, the influence of neoliberal principles has led to an experimental application of new market-oriented approaches in the field of urban studies, in order to achieve different objectives of public interest, from the compensation of land use restrictions to the acquisition of areas for public services. Also in Italy, the use of equalization and non-financial compensation mechanisms has been influenced by internationally consolidated models, such as the Transfer of Development Rights programs (TDR). The key issue concerns the legal autonomy of development rights from land ownership, allowing their trade in the municipal market and thus, in theory, balancing private and public benefits. The scientific debate focuses on the several opportunities, in terms of planning effectiveness and flexibility, but also envisages the risk to generate unfairness, deregulation and other speculations. The paper aims to assess the positive and negative impacts of a generalized use of TDR in the urban governance and in the real estate market, adopting a case study research method. The experience of Milan has been investigated, analyzing the municipal registry of development rights. The results highlight strengths and weaknesses of the market of development rights application, in particular the risk of encouraging real estate speculation, in the same way as financial markets. Conclusions suggest the need of a more effective integration of market-based tools in the planning and regulatory framework, avoiding that their uncontrolled use could weaken the role of public authority in the local government.
3. Green urban vegetation planning and economic efficiency based on remote sensing images and grid geographic space
Arabian Journal of Geosciences volume 14, Article number: 905 (2021), Published: 17 May 2021
As we all know, China is currently in a critical period of economic and social structural transformation. The most crucial point in social change is taking urban-rural integration as the fundamental goal and increasing vegetation coverage in urban infrastructure construction. This is also the current urban greening work, the top priority. Green vegetation, as an indispensable part of the urban greening process, makes relevant greening work begin to flourish in China. At the same time, the progress of this work also urgently needs professional planning guidance. Although this work is complex, with all parties’ efforts, a suitable method has finally been found, which is the application of green city planning mentioned in this article. This paper conducts an in-depth discussion on the theories and research related to urban planning based on the planning and design of urban greening. It uses remote sensing images and the overall summary of the urban green space planning model through the GIS system and the related urban greening issues, carried out characterization analysis. By discussing the green circle problems involved in the current urban planning process and a systematic summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, with the subject knowledge, social practice, and the status quo of urban planning as the research background, urban planning is further discussed. The Chinese greening project’s importance and rationality finally determined the research direction of this article and the problems that need to be solved in the research process. Besides, this paper further combines remote sensing images with GIS system technology. It uses a series of analytical investigation methods, such as the literature research method, field inspection method, landscape interval index method, etc. and conduct research and analysis in the region. By studying the dynamic evolution process of the greening pattern in this area, based on the ecological fragility, a series of evolving urban vegetation laws in the greening area after being destroyed by the outside world are explained.
4. Big Data Processing and Analysis in Internet of Vehicles: Architecture, Taxonomy, and Open Research Challenges
Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering (2021), Published: 07 May 2021
The extensive progression in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) and the exponential upsurge in data consumption reflect the importance of big data in IoV. In general, big data has gained a significant attraction in academia and industry to provide valuable business intelligence and evidence-based decisions. This has been a key enabler for the advancement of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) in which big data can be leveraged for efficient processing and valuable decisions. Moreover, data acquired from connected vehicles, traffic monitoring, social media feeds, and, crowd-sourcing can strengthen urban development and management. The purpose of this study is to synthesize a systematic review of all related research articles from January 2014 to September 2020 in well-alleged venues. We have rigorously surveyed the research papers to understand potential opportunities, methodologies, and challenges of using big data in IoV. This review shows that big data can play a key role in providing sound and valuable predictions and also provide a comprehensive analysis of several methods, tools, and techniques for the use of big data in IoV. Apart from reviewing the state-of-the-art studies of using big data in IoV, a taxonomy of the said also has been proposed. Furthermore, the article outlined and discussed several key challenges in IoV with notable recommendations and open research dimensions for using big data in IoV.
5. Citizen participation at the micro-community level: The case of the green alley projects in Quebec City
Cities, Volume 112, May 2021, 103065
In public or political affairs, civic engagement in transitioning from institutional channels to less formal modes of participation, which have an immediate impact on the local space. For example, greening projects have emerged to address issues such as climate change or to challenge institutional urban planning and practices. These small-scale gardening and greening initiatives can be seen as a way to re-mobilize inhabitants and even involve them in urban planning. But is this the case? How do citizens frame their role and relationship with the public space, and in terms of the local administration? Also, NGOs and other groups acting as ‘mediators’ in the process facilitate civic action, but how do citizens feel about the actions of these facilitators?
Based on an action-research project carried out in Quebec City (Quebec, Canada), we address what it means to take part in greening projects at a micro-scale. Using participant observations, 20 interviews, and field notes, we look at how such projects operate and evolve. The greening projects that were studied benefited from the support of the NGO, which acted as a facilitator throughout the process. This contextualized facilitation allowed the initiative to gain momentum socially, politically, and spatially.
6. Panoramic visual perception and identification of architectural cityscape elements in a virtual-reality environment
Future Generation Computer Systems, Volume 118, May 2021, Pages 107-117
The rapid development of new digital technologies, such as those of virtual reality (VR), human–computer interaction, and artificial intelligence, has provided new opportunities for intelligent cityscape management and perception. This paper provides a new set of intelligent methods for integrating, refining, and managing architectural cityscape elements with VR-based visual perception technologies. We firstly analyze multidimensional subjective perception ratings as well as objective visual data obtained via synchronous human experience tracking in panoramic VR environments. Based on this analysis, we reveal the functions and weights of various cityscape elements, examine the deep cityscape formation mechanism, and hence put forward refined strategies for cityscape development. This work represents a novel approach for cityscape perception and deep understanding, and significantly promotes the application of cutting-edge digital technologies in smart city planning and governance.
7. Urban structure, commuting burden, and employment status of labour forces in an Australian city
Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 93, May 2021, 103072
Understanding the productivity effects of worker commuting burdens is essential for appraisals of urban planning and investment strategies designed to improve urban productivity. However, the extant urban planning literature lacks systematic analysis of the influence of commuting costs on labour mobility, employment engagement, and productivity. This paper provides the first ever detailed analysis of mobility and commuting burdens for workers in a range of industries and occupational groups in Melbourne, Australia. Linking commuting burdens and measures of employment status in urban areas, this paper finds that the labour force in areas experiencing high commuting burdens exhibit lower levels of engagement with job markets. This research further reveals important variations in such relationships across diverse industry and occupation groups. The results provide urban policy makers with better information about urban transport and employment patterns, thus enabling them to investigate alternative approaches to investing in housing and transport infrastructure to reduce worker commuting burdens and improve economic performance.
8. Beyond absolute space: An exploration of relative and relational space in Shanghai using taxi trajectory data
Journal of Transport Geography, Volume 93, May 2021, 103076
The nature of urban space has long-drawn geographers’ interest and David Harvey’s conceptual framework of multiple spaces (i.e., absolute, relative, and relational) within cities has been widely adopted and developed. With its high spatial and temporal resolution, geospatial big data plays an increasingly important role in our understanding of urban structure. Taxi trajectory data is particularly useful in travel purpose estimation and allows for more granular insights into urban mobility due to the door-to-door nature of these trips. This article utilizes taxi trajectory data and explores the interaction among absolute space, relative space, and relational space in Harvey’s framework using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Through an empirical study of Shanghai’s downtown area, this paper highlights the importance of Harvey’s framework in understanding cities’ dynamic structure and argues for changes in urban planning and development to better coordinate land use and travel demand. We find an insignificant relationship between relative and relational space in Shanghai due to a mismatch between urban mobility and the built environment. This mismatch concentrates the transportation flow near the city’s core area, transforming the polycentric structure of Shanghai’s built environment in absolute space to a single-node structure in relational space. After identifying the contributing factors to this problem in Shanghai, this article suggests combining Harvey’s conceptual framework of multiple spaces with geospatial big data to inform planning strategies that address the challenges of rapid urbanization.
9. Blue green infrastructure, from niche to mainstream: Challenges and opportunities for planning in Stockholm
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 166, May 2021, 120528
The need for a transformation from conventional rainwater drainage systems towards Blue Green Infrastructure systems, designed as open spatial systems for sustainable rainwater management, is acknowledged. However, these systems are viewed as sociotechnical systems and, consequently, this transition has been slow. This paper focuses on the planning processes behind Blue Green Infrastructure projects in Stockholm and analyse them as transition experiments, addressing the question: what challenges and opportunities can be identified to enable the new systems to become a common component of rainwater management practices? Based on a literature review, this paper presents a methodological framework by identifying the key factors for facilitating or blocking sociotechnical change. These cluster around six categories –– context, actors, instruments, processes, outputs and outcomes, and impacts. The paper used the framework to collect data and analyse three urban projects. Stockholm has remarkable strengths associated with moving towards new solutions, in terms of receptive contexts, human agency, space for experimentation, and a collaborative planning culture. However, there is a need for renegotiating the positional power of the actors involved in the planning systems in order to provide opportunities for water professionals to establish a stronger role in fitting the new solutions into the overall landscape, and urban planning processes and goals.
10. Urban greenspace as a climate change adaptation strategy for subtropical Asian cities: A comparative study across cities in three countries
Global Environmental Change, Volume 68, May 2021, 102248
Interest in nature-based approaches for climate change adaptation in cities is growing. Whilst there is a growing field of scholarship in a European and North America setting, research on the policy and governance of urban greenspace for climate adaptation in subtropical Asia is limited. Given the different development patterns, environmental characteristics and governance arrangements in subtropical cities, plus their comparatively large population and high climate risk, this is a significant knowledge gap. In response, this paper evaluates competences – skill sets, capabilities, and supporting policy and legislation – to enact adaptation through greenspace across different governance contexts; and assesses how international rhetoric on nature-based adaptation becomes localised to subtropical Asian city settings. We conduct interviews with stakeholders, plus review of relevant policy and city-specific research, for three cities with different governance and development contexts: Hanoi (Vietnam); Taipei (Taiwan); and Fukuoka (Japan). Across all three cases, we find that institutional structures and processes for connecting different remits and knowledge systems are a bigger challenge than a lack of appropriate policy or individuals with the required technical knowledge. However, opportunities for civil society participation and consideration of justice issues vary between the cities according to the socio-political context. These findings illustrate the value of individuals and organisations able to work across institutional boundaries in linking greenspace and adaptation agendas for subtropical Asian cities; and the importance of competence in collaboration with developers and civil society so that the rapid development or regeneration seen in subtropical Asian contexts does not tend towards green climate gentrification. More broadly, our findings show that the diverse nature of subtropical Asian cities means the role of greenspace in climate adaptation is likely to be context-specific, and thus that caution must be exercised against uncritically importing best practices from exemplar cases elsewhere.
11. Delineating a hierarchical organization of ranked urban clusters using a spatial interaction network
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Volume 87, May 2021, 101617
How to reveal the hierarchical structures of urban space has long posed a challenge for researchers. Yet, revealing such structures is of fundamental importance to our understanding of multiscale urban organization. This study, therefore, built a spatial interaction network based on a massive body of human movement data to derive the hierarchical organization of ranked urban clusters. These urban clusters were statistically robust and significant. They were ranked at different levels by fusing network community metrics, urban functional metrics, and road network topological metrics. To verify our methods, experiments were conducted in downtown Wuhan, China, using taxicab trajectory data to construct a spatial interaction network. We derived three levels of urban clusters: (1) geographically cohesive, (2) observable in forms different from government-defined boundaries, and (3) constrained or affected by natural boundaries. We also calculated ranking scores for the urban clusters at different levels based on their structural and functional roles in urban space. Finally, we demonstrate that our ranking scores correlate better with socioeconomic indicators than is the case with other methods. Thus, our method can enrich research on delineating ranked hierarchical urban clusters while the results can provide decision-making support for urban planning and management.
12. Integrating ecological networks modelling in a participatory approach for assessing impacts of planning scenarios on landscape connectivity
Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 209, May 2021, 104039
This research aims at integrating ecological networks modelling in a participatory approach in order to assess impacts of land-use planning scenarios on landscape connectivity. This approach was applied to the metropolitan area of Bordeaux, a highly dynamic territory that has been modified by several decades of rapid urbanization. Whilst ecological network modelling is widely used in the academic spheres, the concept of ecological network itself also rose within operational stakeholders acting in land-use planning. However, exchanges between scientists and stakeholders about this concept and its modelling and decision-making applications remain rare and generally relate to discussions about results of analyzes carried out by scientists on their own. To our knowledge, no studies to date have involved stakeholders throughout the whole modelling process. In this purpose, we developed an adapted companion modelling approach bringing together scientists and stakeholders for co-constructing (1) a multi-species approach based on ecoprofiles, (2) a conceptual model of the territory’s social-ecological functioning and (3) five land-use planning scenarios over a 15-years horizon. In parallel, we used a landscape graphs approach for modelling ecological networks of ecoprofiles, computing local and global connectivity metrics and estimating scenarios’ impacts on multi-species connectivity. The results globally showed negative impacts of dystopian scenarios or anticipated trends in planning on landscape connectivity (from −20.5% to −8.1% on average, respectively), and in a lesser extent positive impacts of utopian or transformative scenarios (+1.5% and 4.5% on average, respectively). Scenarios’ impacts also varied among ecoprofiles, with some ecoprofiles showing similar or antagonistic effects. These results served as a support of debates between stakeholders on the consequences of policy decisions and actions on connectivity, and on the possibilities of translating connectivity modelling in land-use planning and biodiversity conservation in an urban context.
13. Identifying borders of activity spaces and quantifying border effects on intra-urban travel through spatial interaction network
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Volume 87, May 2021, 101625
Detecting borders of urban activity spaces is essential for understanding urban dynamic structures. The emerging big geo-data help to extract valuable knowledge about the relationship between urban structures and human activities at fine granularities. Despite the well-developed urban structure and transportation network design technology, barriers attenuating intra-urban travel still exist as borders of urban activity spaces. To understand the effects of activity space borders, this study first delineates the activity space borders and identifies the borders into three categories: natural, infrastructural, and administrative borders. Then, the border effect from three types of borders is evaluated through the spatial interaction model revealing their influence on intra-urban travel connections. On basis of the modeling results, we introduce an indicator, border thickness, to measure the distance increased caused by each border of activity space. This study provides a border effect perspective for investigating the urban activity spaces. We reveal the different border effects for natural, infrastructural, and administrative borders. Further, we locate the thick borders and discuss their relations with the urban structure.
14. Spatial analysis of urban smart growth and its effects on housing price: The case of Isfahan, Iran
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 68, May 2021, 102769
Because of its multifaceted approach and its emphasis on promoting healthy and sustainable development, smart growth has become one of the popular urban growth policies. The present study conceptualizes the smart growth by a set of principles – including human scale, mixed land use, compact development, environmental health, and balanced distribution of services – and examines the status and spatial variation of these principles and as well, housing attributes and socio-economic characteristics in the Isfahan metropolitan area, at neighborhood level. The association between smart growth and housing price is also investigated. The analyses are carried out by applying principal component analysis (PCA), ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and geographically weighted regression (GWR). Based on both OLS and GWR models, the overall index of urban smart growth positively influences housing prices, albeit the effect size is different in various neighborhoods of the city.
15. Competitiveness, distinctiveness and singularity in urban design: A systematic review and framework for smart cities
Sustainable Cities and Society, 0Volume 68, May 2021, 102782
Should smart city applications reconsider the principles of placemaking in confronting the resemblance of smart cities? This systematic review seeks to answer this question by offering a framework that elucidates the principles of placemaking in smart cities and the relationship between people and places. The results of reviewing the SciVal and SCImago databases yielded 13 journals related to ‘urban economy’—as a goal of smart cities—and ‘placemaking’—as a target of city singularity. A random selection of 44 articles in these journals was conducted based on the presence of words in titles, abstracts and keywords between 2012 and 2020. Four terms were revealed, namely, competitiveness, distinctiveness, urban forms and everyday lifestyles. The findings compiled 22 principles for creating singularity among smart cities. The three-step framework for creating the singularity of smart cities provides insights into how urban actors and stakeholders in the Global South can change traditional smart cities by aggregating the principles of placemaking (i.e. urban forms and everyday lifestyles) with the principles of the urban economy through urban competitiveness and distinctiveness. The conclusions suggested revisiting factors of ranking smart cities by considering the principles of placemaking, which can enhance the singularity of smart cities.
16. Impact of land use types on the spatial heterogeneity of extreme heat environments in a metropolitan area
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 12 May 2021, 103005
Global climate change has intensified extreme climate events such as torrential rain/snow, heat waves, and droughts. Among climate disaster events, extreme heat can bring long and intensified heat waves and seriously impact the human living environment and ecological habitat. However, extreme heat may have inconsistent impacts on various geographical environments, and such extreme heat might impact human health differently among various locations and climate zones. Therefore, this study applies Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to produce 2014–2018 land surface temperatures and further applies spatial analysis to categorize areas into absolute and relative heat areas in the Taipei metropolitan area in Taiwan. A comparative analysis is then conducted based on ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to explore the spatial heterogeneity of changing heat environments in the study area. Although the OLS results show that mixed use has the greatest influence on heat, whereas green space and barren land have the highest negative effect on heat, the GWR analysis shows that the coefficients of every land use type demonstrate different spatial patterns. These spatial patterns can be applied as a reference for the mitigation plans to reduce the effects of heat.
17. Fractal dimension of job-housing flows: A comparison between Beijing and Shenzhen
Cities, Volume 112, May 2021, 103120
Job-housing flows are among the most important travel flows in a city. Therefore, it is essential to measure the extent to which the job-housing flow distribution covers the city space, which can be used as evidence for evaluating the land use status and transportation system. Existing studies have analyzed the spatial distribution of job-housing flows in terms of where and how the flows are aggregated in the city, but they have not revealed the extent to which the flow distribution fills the city space. In this study, we introduce a fractal dimension to measure the space-filling degree of the job-housing flows, which is defined based on the flow space, with the flow being the basic element. Because the flow fractal dimension is independent of the observation scale, we compared the box-counting dimensions of job-housing flows in Beijing and Shenzhen using mobile phone data. The results demonstrated that the fractal dimension was substantially higher in Beijing than in Shenzhen, indicating that the job and home distributions fill more space in Beijing, and the links between the job and home locations are more disordered and irregular in Beijing. These results are related to the more crammed urban land use and higher commuting demand from the suburbs to the city center.
18. Vacant land, flood exposure, and urbanization: Examining land cover change in the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area
Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 209, May 2021, 104047
The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) metropolitan area is one of the fastest growing areas in the U.S. As the urbanization process continues in DFW, existing greenfields are being developed and more developments appear near floodplains. This research examines the relationships between existing vacant land and the urbanization process by analyzing the land cover change between 2011 and 2016 in and around current floodplains in the DFW metro area. The major focus lies in three questions: 1) are flood-prone areas in DFW more likely to experience new development? 2) does existing vacant land in flood-prone areas bring new development activities? and 3) is the urbanization process associated with neighborhood change? Three logistic regression models were constructed to examine if existing vacant land can predict new development activities – with subgroups of different neighborhood socioeconomic status and by the level of flood hazard exposure. The results suggest that, in the DFW area, floodable areas are experiencing more development, and existing vacancies are a trigger only when vacancies are not clustered and when flood exposure is low. A heterogeneous pattern across different neighborhood profiles was found as areas with high flood exposure are likely to experience more large-scale development activities only for the low-income groups. This study suggests city planners pay attention to citywide vacant properties as they could either predict or detour potential developments. At the same time, areas with a close proximity to floodplains require more attention for the neighborhood socioeconomic status than existing vacant land uses.
19. Reducing outdoor air temperature, improving thermal comfort, and saving buildings’ cooling energy demand in arid cities – Cool paving utilization
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 68, May 2021, 102762
Cairo experiences extremely high temperatures, which increase buildings’ cooling energy demand. Previous studies found that vegetation raises air temperature in low-density urban areas and has a weak effect on air temperature reduction in high-density urban areas in Cairo. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the impact of cool paving, as an alternative strategy, on air temperature and buildings’ energy demand reduction in urban areas of different densities. Three built-up areas with varying densities of 25 %, 50 %, and 85 % were selected and simulated by using ENVI-met to evaluate the effect of cool paving on air temperature reduction. Then, DesignBuilder model was used to calculate buildings’ cooling energy savings resulting from air temperature reduction. This study showed that cool paving can reduce air temperature and buildings’ cooling energy in 25 %, 50 %, and 85 % urban densities by 0.5 K – 2.5 %, 0.2 K – 1.4 %, and 0.1 K – 0.2 %, respectively. However, cool paving raised Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) in the three areas. Therefore, other scenarios combining vegetation and cool paving are discussed as possible solutions for the dilemma between air temperature and PET reduction. Combining trees with cool paving achieved this balance in the low-density urban area besides reducing cooling energy by 3.2 %.
20. Emissions assessment of bike sharing schemes: the case of Just Eat Cycles in Edinburgh, UK
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 11 May 2021, 103012
Transport accounts for 40% of global emissions, 72% of which comes from road transport, and private cars are responsible for 60% of road transport emissions. In cities, self-service bike sharing systems are quickly developing and are intended to offer an alternative and cleaner mode of transport than the car. However, the sustainability of such schemes is often taken as a given, rather than thoroughly evaluated. To address this gap, in this paper we undertake a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a public self-service bike sharing system in the city of Edinburgh, UK, modelling the production, operation and disposal elements of the system, but discounting additional food intake by users. Our results show that the bike sharing scheme is saving carbon dioxide equivalent emissions compared to the modes of transport by which its users previously travelled, but it is essential to optimize rebalancing operations and to manufacture bikes as near as possible to the point of use to further reduce carbon emissions; and that the overall emissions impacts of the scheme are critically dependent on how public transport providers respond to reductions in demand as users shift trips to bikeshare, since most trips transfer from walk and public transport, not private car. The policy implications for authorities seeking to use BSS as a GHG reduction intervention are not straightforward.
KHOA HỌC VÀ CÔNG NGHỆ TRONG LĨNH VỰC XÂY DỰNG
1. Thermal storage performance of building envelopes for nearly-zero energy buildings during cooling season in Western China: An experimental study
Building and Environment, Volume 194, May 2021, 107709
Adapting to the local climate is the key to developing nearly-zero energy buildings (NZEBs). During cooling season in Western China, the climate conditions are characterized by a large daily temperature range and high solar radiation, and improving the thermal storage performance of buildings is an effective passive cooling design strategy for NZEBs. This study aims to investigate the thermal storage performance of building envelopes under free-running conditions. A phase change material (PCM) is integrated in an experimental wallboard to enhance its thermal storage performance. To simulate the thermal environment in free-running buildings, a double-sided periodic thermal effect is applied as the indoor and outdoor conditions during the experiment. Different orders of the material layers and thicknesses of the PCM layer are compared to investigate the key factors that affected the thermal storage performance. The thermal inertia index and coefficient of heat accumulation are employed as key parameters to quantify the two factors. The results indicated that enhancing the coefficient of heat accumulation for the wallboard by optimizing the material layer order can reduce the fluctuations in the indoor air temperature by 31%. However, only increasing the thickness of the heat storage material does not significantly improve the attenuation and time delay effect of the wallboards. The coefficient of heat accumulation is proposed as a key parameter for NZEBs design. The design prototype and key parameters of the thermal storage wall considered in this study may provide a reference for the development of NZEBs in Western China.
2. Impact of summer heat on urban park visitation, perceived health and ecosystem service appreciation
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, Volume 60, May 2021, 127058
Urbanization, environmental change and ageing are putting urban health at risk. In many cities, heat stress is projected to increase. Urban green spaces are considered as an important resource to strengthen the resilience of city dwellers. We conducted a questionnaire survey in two structurally distinct parks in Leipzig, Germany, on hot summer days in 2019. We assessed the respondents’ activity patterns, satisfaction with the existing infrastructure, heat-related health impairment, changes in park use during heat waves and evaluation of the role of parks in coping with heat stress. We found that the old-grown, tree-rich park was used significantly more frequently for experiencing nature, while the newer, less tree-rich park developed on a former railway-brownfield site was used more often for socializing and having BBQs and picnics. Satisfaction with available drinking fountains and public toilets was generally low and satisfaction with lighting was assessed less satisfactory in the old-grown park. Safety was assessed as satisfactory in general but significantly less satisfactory by female respondents. The heat stress summary score indicating heat-related health impairment was significantly higher for participants in the newer park. A high share of respondents stated that they used parks during heat waves as frequently as usual in the summer (46 %), while some respondents stated that they adapted their park use behaviour (18 %), e.g., by coming later in the evening. Regarding the participants’ responses about the role of parks under summer heat conditions, we matched 138 statements to several regulating and cultural ecosystem services, and we found cooling and recreation to be mentioned most often. We concluded that green space planning should diminish usage barriers, such as insufficient lighting and insufficient sanitary infrastructure, to ensure equal park use opportunities for all city dwellers. Specific local environmental and sociocultural conditions, changing environments and climate adaptation must be considered. To maintain ecological processes and functions and to cope with climate change, urban planning should preserve older parks with a large amount of tree coverage while respecting demands for particular built infrastructure.
3. The Mediating Effect of Air Pollution in the Impacts of Urban Form on Nighttime Urban Heat Island Intensity
Sustainable Cities and Society, Available online 1 May 2021, 102985
Urban form studies on urban heat island (UHI) are mostly from the microscale perspective of thermodynamics or fluid mechanics, lacking of consideration of the impact of urban form on traffic behavior or air pollution, which is also proved to be influential on nighttime urban thermal environment. The objective of this paper is to quantitatively reveal the mediating role of air pollution in the impacts of urban form on nighttime UHI intensity based upon an empirical research of 150 cities of China. We constructed multivariate regression models, structural equation models and scenario simulations to verify and predict the mediating effect of air pollution. Results showed that the fractal dimension of urban planar shape almost all influences UHI intensity through air pollution. The mediating effect related to urban continuity and urban elongation also accounts for 25-28% and 33-40% of the total effect, respectively. Controlling urban population density can play an important role on UHI mitigation, but optimization of urban geometry can bring co-benefits on urban air and thermal environments. For the purpose of improving urban thermal environment, we advocate the proper elongation and decentralization of urban form, and control urban sprawl disorderly, especially in cities with severe air pollution.
4. SHELTER – Structural Hyper-resisting Element for Life Threatening Earthquake Risk. An innovative approach for seismic protection
Engineering Structures, Volume 235, 15 May 2021, 112012
This paper presents an innovative approach to save human lives in the event of an earthquake, even in the case of building collapse, when overall structural strengthening, the ideal solution, is not viable. The proposed solution consists of a seismic shelter for individual apartments, with reasonable costs and fast installation. This approach takes advantage of recent developments in Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), which may allow for a few tens of seconds of anticipation. Such amount of time is normally insufficient for a safe building evacuation but long enough to get protection within the shelter.
The shelter unit mainly consists of a protecting “capsule”, integrated in the architectural layout. The life protection is ensured during the possible building collapse (or just falling debris) by the “capsule” mechanical strength and stiffness together with specific safety systems, namely against severe shock. Besides, the shelter is provided with technical systems and goods to ensure survival with reasonable comfort during the enclosure period, between the earthquake occurrence and the rescue arrival.
5. Sustainability model to assess the suitability of green roof alternatives for urban air pollution reduction applied in Tehran
Building and Environment, Volume 194, May 2021, 107683
Green roofs are environmentally-friendly architectural solutions that contribute to air quality improvement, especially in an air-polluted metropolis like Tehran, where space is scarce and expensive. At present, there are different types of green roofs available, with the intensive, semi-intensive, and extensive the most feasible for urban settlements. This project aims to develop a new model to find the most suitable green roof to reduce air pollution in cities. To achieve this, after an initial study of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, this study combines the agile multi-criteria decision-making method MIVES with an analytic hierarchy process and sensitivity analysis. This new model has successfully evaluated the suitability of the aforementioned three alternatives in Tehran’s residential buildings. This assessment confirmed that this new approach can assist urban managers, architects, and constructors in selecting the most adequate green roof solution to contribute to improving air quality in cities. Nevertheless, all three evaluated solutions require improvement in terms of sustainability. This article recommends, for this specific case study, the application of an optimized version of the semi-intensive alternative by replacing its most expensive and large embodied energy components with eco-efficient and cost-effective materials, such as bio-waste and recycled materials.
6. Daylight in buildings based on tubular light guides
Journal of Building Engineering, Available online 12 May 2021, 102608
Tubular light guides (TLGs) represent a solution for energy efficient performance of light during a day based on the daylight transport into building interiors. While daylight from windows sufficiently illuminates rooms close to building envelopes the light guides improve visual environment and perception of architectural space in deeper parts of interiors. The main aim of this study is focussed on the evaluation of efficiency of two selected TLG systems experimentally tested in temperate climatic conditions. Firstly, daylight illuminance measurements under the light guide installations were performed for one year period with documentation of the typical daily illuminance courses. The measurement results show differences between daylight efficiency of these systems. Secondly, spectral reflectance of the light guide tubes was measured and analysed to find out material influence on light transport effectiveness. Finally, daylight simulations were carried out applying software HOLIGILM for determination of daylight illuminance under the TLG of various dimensions. The study gives general overview about potentials of daylighting applications for straight light pipe systems.
7. High Reynolds number aerodynamic testing of a roof with parapet
Engineering Structures, Volume 234, 1 May 2021, 112006
Aerodynamic testing was executed on a large-scale building with two distinct aspect ratios (1:6 and 1:3), at a large open-jet facility, Louisiana State University (LSU). To illustrate, a 1:15 scale test model was extensively investigated by experimental testing at a high Reynolds number (~2.3 × 107). The objective was to understand the performance of parapets in reducing the magnitude of localized and area-averaged roof pressures. Through analogy with bare-roof and several parapet configurations, the paper explores the performance of parapet walls and why they can be employed in aerodynamic mitigation. The results suggest installing a parapet wall will act as an aerodynamic mitigation device to reduce negative (uplift) loads. Large-scale testing indicates that the taller the parapet, the higher the reduction in mean and fluctuating pressures. However, depending on the roof’s aspect ratio, there is an optimal parapet height. The study concludes that 40–50% reductions in roof pressures can be achieved with parapets. Along the same lines, to yield high reductions in roof pressures, the parapet height is a key parameter. Short parapets may have low performance under conical vortices. The importance of the current study is that parapets, as well as other architectural features, are widely considered difficult to investigate by small-scale testing, at low Reynolds numbers, the leading cause of discrepancies between the laboratory and field measurements. Consequently, the current paper contributes to knowledge useful to explain the role of parapets in reducing aerodynamic pressures, for buildings to withstand wind loads at high Reynolds numbers.
8. Heat risk of residents in different types of communities from urban heat-exposed areas
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 768, 10 May 2021, 145052
Heat risk assessment is important due to serious health problems caused by heat waves. The complexity and diversity of socio-ecological characteristics in urban areas that lead to heat risk are more serious in heat-exposed areas, while risk assessments and determinant based on individuals in heat-exposed areas have been neglected in previous studies. This study pursues a new idea of combining questionnaire surveys and remote sensing analysis to identify urban heat-exposed areas and assess heat risk in heat-exposed areas of Beijing, China. Morphological spatial pattern analysis (MSPA) was used to identify large and continuous hotspot regions as urban heat-exposed areas based on summer surface temperature from 2011 to 2017. A total of 1484 valid questionnaires were completed by residents of heat-exposed areas. The majority of respondents (96.4%) indicated that they perceived heat risk. Moreover, the residents without a local “hukou” were a potentially vulnerable group (note: hukou refers to the population registration management system.). This study further analysed the diversity of community types within the heat-exposed areas. There were significant differences in heat risk among the different community types of multi-story residential districts, Hutong (a traditional architectural form) residential districts and city villages. In particular, the degree of heat risk perceived by residents living in these the community types was determined by whether they had pre-existing medical conditions; however, age only played a decisive role in city villages. This study not only enriches the current understanding of health risks affected by heat waves but also explores the determinants contributing to the severity of heat risk. The output provides important information for future development of heat mitigation and adaptation strategies.
9. Airflow and thermal comfort evaluation of a room with different outlet opening sizes and elevations ventilated by a two-sided wind catcher
Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 37, May 2021, 102112
Wind catchers as passive cooling systems contribute to the enhancement of air quality, thermal comfort, and reduction of energy consumption in the residential sector. In this paper, the indoor flow structure, crossflow ventilation characteristics, and thermal comfort of a room integrated with a two-sided wind catcher is numerically investigated. A mixed-climate condition and experimentally validated room dimensions are utilized to define the physics of the problem. 3D steady-state RANS CFD simulations, with different turbulence models for a reference case are simulated, and their performance is compared with the published literature. The following analyses are conducted based on a validated SST k-ω model and a fixed reference case dimensions with (1) five different room outlet elevations (top, reference case, middle, front of room inlet opening, and floor) and (2) four different outlet areas to the wall ratio (10%–40%). The results show that the room outlet mass flow rate increases up to 26% by decreasing the room outlet elevation from the top to the floor; the front and floor outlet elevations obtained the optimum thermal comfort metrics. At a specific room outlet opening elevation, increasing the room outlet area to wall ratio increases the mass flow rate; the 30% aspect ratio obtained the desired temperature stratification and velocity field. These results can be combined with architectural metrics towards improving user comfort in the buildings.
10.Knowledge, attitude, and practice of green building design and assessment: New Zealand case
Building and Environment, Available online 14 May 2021, 107960
Green building design and assessment have drawn significant attention from researchers over the past decades. Despite the advancements in this research area, multiple stakeholder analysis, as a social and non-technical research area, has been left uninvestigated in green building and sustainable development research. To fill the research gap, this research aims to (1) examine knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of multiple stakeholders (i.e., architects, engineers, sustainability consultants, developers, contractors, and suppliers) towards green building design and assessment process in the New Zealand Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry, (2) explore motivations and barriers to green buildings on the national level, and (3) identify and contrast each stakeholder group’s motivations and barriers to adopt green building standards and certifications. Data were collected from 215 multiple stakeholders in New Zealand using a KAP questionnaire survey. To explore the relationships and differences between the stakeholder groups’ KAP levels, the Kruskal-Wallis H test and Correlation tests (Pearson, Kendall, and Spearman) were conducted. The results indicated that the multiple stakeholders had a good level of self-perceived knowledge and a positive attitude towards green building design and assessment. However, practices of green building design and assessment were still limited. The stakeholders’ knowledge level was significantly and positively correlated with their attitude and practice. Note that an attitude-practice gap was identified among the multiple stakeholders which needs to be bridged. Practical implications are proposed to enhance the KAP levels of the multiple stakeholders and facilitate the adoption of green building design and assessment in New Zealand.
11. A review on the development and application of graphene based materials for the fabrication of modified asphalt and cement
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 285, 24 May 2021, 122885
As a kind of nano-material, graphene has played a major role in building and construction industries endorsing to its excellent performance. This review classifies graphene based materials according to the number of layers and surface chemical composition and then introduces their physical and chemical characteristics, focusing on the performance improvement effect of graphene based modified asphalt and cement in building materials with focus on their respective construction problems. Relying on physical and chemical modification strategies, and applying various performance analysis indicators, certain directional modification of graphene based materials is proposed to overcome the construction problems and improvement in their performance. In addition, using microscopic characterizations like FT-IR, XRD, SEM, AFM, XPS, the mechanism of action and modification of various graphene based building materials is thoroughly explained.
12. Binary reaction behaviors of red mud based cementitious material：Hydration characteristics and Na+ utilization
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 410, 15 May 2021, 124592
Bayer red mud (RM) occupies a large amount of land, which excessive Na+ seriously damages groundwater resources. In this research, a RM based cementitious material (RMC) composed of RM and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was developed. It is interesting to find that a binary reaction consisting of cement hydration and geopolymer reaction in RMC. The mechanical and Na+ consolidation rate of RMC were improved by the synergistic effect of binary reaction. The results indicated that the compressive strength of RMC is the highest and reaches 32.5R OPC when the mass ratio of CaO/(SiO2+Al2O3) is 1.37, and the Na+ leaching concentration is environmentally acceptable. The 7 days compressive strength of RM-based cementitious material No.2 (RMC2) can reach 93.80% of that of 28 days. As the predominant hydration products, cement hydration product (Ca5(SiO4)2(OH)2) and geopolymer (CaAl2Si2O8·2H2O and Na3Al3Si3O12·2H2O) were principally responsible for the strength development of RMC2 at 7 days. The optimal densification microstructure and [SiO4] polymerization structure was presented in RMC2. The supreme Na+ consolidation rate was 99.23% in RMC2 due to the cooperation of physical fixation and [Si(Al)O4] charge balance principle. This paper provides a fresh theoretical guidance for the utilization of RM and its Na+ in building materials.
13. Laboratory and numerical analysis of failure of stone masonry arches with and without reinforcement
Engineering Failure Analysis, Volume 123, May 2021, 105272
Nowadays, there are several existing masonry arch structures which are usually protected. Therefore, the maintenance and determination of their load-bearing capacity is a very important issue. Consequently, it is necessary to understand the behaviour of these structures, but the investigation of an old structure can cause difficulties. Nevertheless, a lot of tests can be performed on a smaller model under laboratory conditions. It is easier to understand their structural behaviour and determine the parameters that significantly influence the load-bearing capacity. It also gives the chance to build and verify a numerical model that can be used to model existing structures. In this research, destructive tests of small scale stone masonry arches were performed under laboratory conditions. The analyses were carried out with and without reinforcement to determine the differences in structural behaviour, load-bearing capacity, and failure type. For the tests, carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates were used to strengthen the arch. The properties of the building materials of the stone masonry arches were tested. The paper presents the results and experiences of the construction and the loading of small scale masonry arches. Furthermore, it gives a comparison between the behaviour of reinforced and unreinforced structures.
14. Structural assessment & strengthening of the first singe-arch RC bridge in Sarajevo, BIH
Engineering Structures, Volume 235, 15 May 2021, 112002
Careva Ćuprija (Emperor’s Bridge), located in the heart of the Old City in Sarajevo, was built in 1897. It was built as the first single-arch reinforced concrete bridge in Sarajevo with a span of 25.36 m. At that time, it was the largest structure of this type in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. During its long life of 122 years, some rehabilitation work took place; however, the main design for its rehabilitation was done just in 2015. As the bridge is on the list of the national monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina, ICOMOS Recommendations for the Analysis, Conservation and Structural Restoration of Architectural Heritage were followed. The current condition assessment of the bridge was used to identify the remaining service life of the bridge, the required type and level of treatments, and suitable time for applying repair and retrofitting methods. Visual inspection, nondestructive, and minor destructive tests were done with the goal to determine the mechanical characteristics of the built-in materials and define the state of the structure. The article discusses the used methods and obtained results, which were the basis for numerical model calculation and the creation of the rehabilitation design.
15. The dynamic evolution of synergies between BIM and sustainability: A text mining and network theory approach
Journal of Building Engineering, Volume 37, May 2021, 102159
The increasing demand for a sustainable Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry has driven research domains integrating Building Information Modeling (BIM) with sustainability to gain momentum over the past years. While some studies have reviewed the development in these two domains separately, they did not address the important associations between them, nor did they analyze their joint advancement over time. Therefore, this study aims to understand and quantitatively analyze the dynamic evolution of relationships between BIM and sustainability critical towards developing BIM’s functionalities to satisfy the industry’s growing sustainability needs. First, 523 relevant journal articles published over the last 15 years were collected. Rule-based content analysis is then conducted on these articles using text mining to retrieve and structure relevant textual data pertaining to the six defined dimensions: BIM functionalities, software, sustainability aspects, green certification systems, project phases, and stakeholders. Social network theory is then applied to map and measure the associations between the dimensions’ components for analyzing the dynamic changes in their synergies over three spans. Results reveal a significant transformation in the diversity, magnitude, and expansion of associations between BIM and sustainability domains across the supply chain. Findings also highlight less explored areas that require further research and industrial attention towards achieving full use of BIM and sustainability’s integrated power. This work’s novelty lies in comprehensively and quantitatively analyzing these often-dismissed synergies to reveal through knowledge-based findings how BIM has progressed to address the industry’s changing sustainability requirements and recommend future directions for advancing sustainable BIM practices.
16. Exploration of fatigue and modal analysis on mono leaf suspension made by natural composite materials
Materialstoday,Available online 19 May 2021
Leaf Spring architecture is a major achievement in the design and production of the product in commercial vehicles. The most common designs with a multiplicity of leaves are leaf springs which display hysteresis when loaded and unloaded. The approaches often used to evaluate spring strength are time intensive and expensive, such as resilience tests on the field and rough tests. In the early stage of the design cycle, however, simulated ways to measure strength and rigidity offer useful knowledge and save time and cost. They are versatile for the assessment of various design options and for the early shift in design. In this work, mono leaf spring suspension was analyzed on the fatigue and modal with different composite made by E-Glass and natural fibers and the results are compared with the base materials steel (65Si7). The 3D modelling was carried out and analyzed with ANSYS on both a steel and a composites blade spring.
17. Design optimization of noise barrier tunnels through component reuse: Minimization of costs and CO2 emissions using multi-objective genetic algorithm
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 298, 20 May 2021, 126697
Reuse is known to be an effective method to increase the sustainability of the architecture, engineering, and construction industries, which account for a majority of CO2 emissions and waste generation. However, despite the environmental benefits involved, additional costs and increased design difficulty limit the application of reuse. This paper proposes an optimal design method that minimizes the CO2 emissions and costs of the noise barrier tunnel. In the proposed method, information on reusable steel beams from the building information modeling data of the noise barrier tunnel is extracted, and the optimization problem is defined. In addition, designs and component procurement plans aiming to minimize CO2 emissions and costs are derived using a multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results of the case study show that depending on the situation, CO2 emissions are reduced from 1% to 92% and costs are reduced by up to 25% relative to the case without reuse. As in previous studies, CO2 emission could be reduced herein through reuse, but an increase in costs was observed in some cases. This study contributes to the literature by providing optimal alternatives for designers through an optimal design method integrating strategies to overcome barriers to the practice of reuse. The case study results also highlight the need for an assessment through the entire life cycle, including the modification and inspection processes of reusable components that are generally excluded.
18. Flow characteristics and structural parametric optimisation design of rectangular plenum chambers for HVAC systems
Energy and Buildings, Available online 18 May 2021, 111112
Plenum chambers are widely used in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems (HVAC) for homogeneous flow and pressure distribution. To date, scientific design methods and key parameters influencing chamber systems have not been determined for HVAC engineering applications. In this study, a single-path unlined rectangular plenum chamber is used to investigate interior flow characteristics in a confined space. An orthogonal experiment is conducted to identify the key influencing factors and evaluate their significance. Through the analysis of range and variance, the sectional dimensions (W × H) and length (L) of the chamber were found to be the most significant factors for structural design. A structural parametric optimisation method is proposed for the chamber system. The optimal cross-sectional aspect ratio of the plenum chamber (W/H) is determined as follows: when the cross-sectional velocity vchamber ≤ 1 m/s, W/H = 1/1; when vchamber > 1 m/s, the W/H should be as close as possible to 5/1, corresponding to a smaller pressure drop. The generalised velocity profiles in each cross-section are almost the same when the dimensionless length L/de ≥ 3, indicating that the inside “jet” entering the rectangular plenum chamber reaches fully developed flow. The threshold parameter for the optimal length of the chamber was obtained from the perspective of reducing energy consumption. Additionally, the interior flow characteristics of the chamber system were analysed with different configurations. This study provides first-hand data for optimising the structural design of a single-path plenum chamber in an HVAC system.
19. Sensitivity analysis of household factors and energy consumption in residential houses: A multi-dimensional hybrid approach using energy monitoring and modeling
Energy and Buildings, Volume 239, 15 May 2021, 110864
The energy forecast modeling has long been referred to as the function of estimating the energy consumption of a building and providing sustainable design options for energy-efficient policies. In addition to the existing conventional schemes for energy performance and energy simulation, there is the potential to connect steady-state energy modeling to energy monitoring data, along with household factors such as family size, housing design, and occupancy ratio to better understand hard-to-measure energy-related behaviors. This paper introduces a multi-dimensional hybrid approach that combines multiple interactions between observation-based and simulation-based data using energy modeling’s graphical interface software. Compared to the observed energy consumption, the model samples show an average Pearson coefficient of determination in the range of 72% to 76% probability of the energy model data. Accordingly, research has carried out specific air conditioning set points and schedules within each household. Finally, the variation of simulated household models illustrates the greatest effect of air conditioning setpoint on savings of 20% to 60%, compared to the baseline usage. Sensitivity analysis shows that larger household size, higher occupancy ratio, lower thermal resistance for wall insulation, and slighter airflow rate can reduce the end-use and the gross site or source energy. The study underlines the diverse interactions among household characteristics, occupant schedules, and energy monitoring data, which are prospective to stimulate the application of building energy modeling in the early design stage and the optimization of energy efficiency in the operational phases.
20. Regeneration path of abandoned industrial buildings: The moderating role of the goodness of regeneration mode
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 297, 15 May 2021, 126668
The regeneration of abandoned industrial buildings (AIBs) is an important aspect of global sustainable urbanization. Public approval is directly linked to the success of the implementation and operation of such projects. However, there have been few quantitative studies on public willingness to support these projects. This study accordingly proposes an extended theory of planned behavior model that uses goodness of regeneration mode (GRM) as a moderating construct and considers environmental concern (EC) and perceived value (PV) to determine the factors that affect public acceptance behavioral intention (BI). A total of 365 valid data samples were collected via questionnaire surveys conducted near 151 regeneration sites in 10 Chinese provinces, and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. The empirical results indicate that all underlying dimensions except subjective norms and EC have significant and direct effects on public acceptance BI, and EC and PV affect BI indirectly through influencing attitudes. By analyzing the moderating role of GRM on PV to BI, we found that future AIB uses, such as creative/cultural spaces, are a recommendable option nowadays. Academic and management implications of the empirical results are also provided as references for the improvement of AIB regeneration and sustainable development promotion.
VẬT LIỆU XÂY DỰNG
1. Fractal Patterns as Fitness Criteria in Genetic Algorithms Applied as a Design Tool in Architecture
Nexus Network Journal volume 23, pages21–37 (2021)
This paper explores the generative use of a genetic algorithm incorporating a computer-based fractal dimension tool termed “DBVgen”. Fractals offer a quantitative and qualitative relation between nature, the built environment and computational mechanics and in this paper are explored as a bridge between these realms. The primary objective was to develop and employ a sophisticated analytic tool within a creative context using fractal dimension and the Vollendorf Method. This tool was then tested on a complex case study project and the results discussed. The design process developed for this research showed that the insertion of the DBVgen tool into a traditional schematic design phase was capable of creating unique and compelling compositions and aided in developing high level architectural solutions with respect to various parametric controls and designer feedback. A valuable aspect of this exploration was in positioning the DBVgen tool up front to aid in the creative process and better leverage
2. Changes in concentrations and characteristics of asbestos fibers dispersed from corrugated asbestos cement sheets due to stabilizer treatment
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 285, 1 May 2021, 112110
Asbestos management in Korea has, to date, focused exclusively on dismantlement and removal; however, the effective management of asbestos in public facilities and rural dwellings is also critical. This study compares eight different asbestos stabilization treatments and their effectiveness in reducing asbestos fiber dispersion from weathered corrugated asbestos cement sheets (CACS) under different wind conditions. The effectiveness of the different asbestos stabilizers was assessed in order to identify the characteristics of fibers dispersed from treated CACS samples. The impact of wind speed on the concentration and composition of the dispersed fibers was also evaluated. For all wind speeds, the concentration of the fibers dispersed from the CACS samples that were treated with stabilizers decreased relative to the untreated CACS. These results show that asbestos concentrations were considerably reduced following stabilizer treatment and that treated CACS dispersed fewer asbestos fibers relative to untreated CACS. The results of this study will be useful for the development of strategies regarding the appropriate management of asbestos in public buildings.
3. Stabilizing the nanostructure of Pre-lithiated LiF nanoparticles modified [email protected] nanosheets as a high performance anode material for lithium ions batteries
Ceramics International, Available online 11 May 2021
Graphite nanosheets coated by LiF/SnO2 composites are designed to obtain a lithium ion anode material with excellent performance. LiF nanoparticles play a significant role in improving the electrochemical performance by inhibiting electrolyte decomposition and providing excess Li sources during cycling. The obtained [email protected]@C electrode shows an outstanding capacity of 951.9 mAhg-1 at 0.2 Ag-1 after 370 cycles and excellent long cycling performance of 650.0 mAhg-1 at 1.0 Ag-1 after 930 cycles. First-principles calculations demonstrate that F-doped SnO2 (-2211.8 eV) has a lower free energy compared to SnO2 (-1937.4 eV), resulting in a robust composite architecture that gives rise to high cycling stability.
4. Analysis of rice husk ash concrete utilization in construction field
Materialstoday: proceedings, Available online 14 May 2021
Typical artifact in bond is every asset & vitality serious material. Handling for bond Moreover emits carbonic corrosive gas done environment. In this way they will be diminishing this natural contamination & esteem from claiming average fabricating materials, Different materials in ash, ground coarse blast-furnace dross, metakaolin, rice husk powder (RHA) Also silicon dioxide seethe may be utilized much appreciated will their pozzolanic conduct. RHA that holds secondary silicon dioxide content constructed through controlled smoldering about rice husk will a chance to be utilized likewise supplementary building material (SCM) done cement creation since it exhibits pozzolanic aspects and contributes should quality Also impermeableness from claiming cement. This paper displays a framework of the worth of effort apportioned on the usage about RHA Likewise fractional reinstatement from claiming bond previously; cement What’s more its outcome for workability, compressive quality Furthermore chloride porous for concrete.
5. Experimental study on the capillary absorption characteristics of rammed earth
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 283, 10 May 2021, 122689
The capillary absorption test is redeveloped for rammed earth building materials. Since these materials liquefy and expand upon contact with water, the standard method must be modified to tackle this material evolution during the test. Firstly, a thin permeable wick and paper are applied as lower sample parts, to counter the liquefaction. It is shown that their influence on the resulting absorption properties is limited. In addition, a confining sealing is utilised against the expansion. It is shown that this confined way of testing offers crucial advantages as a result of the material remaining stable throughout the test.
6. Estimation of the mode I fracture toughness and evaluations on the strain behaviors of the compacted mine tailings from full-field displacement fields via digital image correlation
Theoretical and Applied Fracture Mechanics, Available online 8 May 2021, 103014
Ore beneficiation processes produce an enormous number of tailings. For dispersed remote artisanal mining sites that are unapproachable to strong construction and building materials, compacted MTs can be an alternative to construct civilian buildings. The mechanical behaviors of compacted clay and adobe masonry were studied by numerous researchers; however, the understanding of the strain behavior and fracture properties was insufficient to illustrate compacted MTs due to differences of the material properties. Therefore, in this paper, the strain behavior and fracture properties of compacted MTs under mode I loading condition were explored. A series of semi-circular bending (SCB) tests were performed to examine the mode I fracture behavior of compacted MTs at different notch depths. Simultaneously, digital image correlation (DIC) techniques were utilized to acquire the surface image sequence under mode I loading condition in order to characterize the strain behaviors. Williams series was introduced to measure the mode I fracture toughness in a full-field displacement field via DIC analysis. The mode I fracture toughness obtained by empirical equation, the Williams series, and the modified empirical equation considering plasticity in the notch tip were all comparatively examined in this paper. Moreover, the strain behaviors of the compacted MTs at different loading levels were explored. Finally, the size of the fracture process zone (FPZ) and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) were quantified by using DIC. Results revealed that the mode I fracture toughness obtained from full-field displacement field and modified empirical equation analysis was larger than from the empirical equation.
7. Effect of the state of conservation of the hemp used in geopolymer and hydraulic lime concretes
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 285, 24 May 2021, 122853
This paper evaluates two types of concrete with hemp fibres as natural aggregates prepared with inorganic binders, based on reactions (Si-Na) and (Si-Ca). It also was tested two states of conservation of the hemp: 1) fresh and 2) preserved in moist conditions for six months. The results indicate that the changes induced by wet preservation, above all the increase in the percentage of cellulose, improve the mechanical properties of the concretes and is equivalent to other pretreatments conducted to improve the conditions of the hemp fibres confirmed by performing compositional, mineralogical and physical studies of the raw materials and the concretes. The dosages used in this study provided high quality concretes in comparison with other studies with similar dosages.
8. Express method for determining the composition of soils based on IR spectroscopy technology
Vibrational Spectroscopy, Volume 114, May 2021, 103258
Normative documents in many countries that regulate the construction of highways and railways subgrade, in order to reduce the costs, allow the use of soils from nearby excavations and quarries. Large length of roads leads to noticeable variations in the properties of soils along the construction line, which is reflected in design decisions. For example, the results of laboratory studies performed in this work demonstrate a scatter in the optimum moisture content of cohesive soils up to 40 %, and a spread in the soil densities after compaction, up to 20 %. In such conditions, the task of achieving the required quality of construction is partially transferred to the input control of materials, allowing determining its compliance with the requirements of the project. Since the use of input control technologies can increase the construction time, they must rapid. In this study, to accelerate the routines for comparing soil properties, a method for determining the mineral composition based on the use of infrared spectroscopy technologies is developed. The use of this method allows determining the mineral composition of soil building materials by the IR spectroscopy with an accuracy of 10–15 %.
9. Engineering properties of a building material with melted plastic waste as the only binder
Journal of Building Engineering, Available online 15 May 2021, 102684
In this paper, the use of plastic wastes as the only binding material to develop a cemented construction material, PlasticWasteCrete (PWC), was investigated. Two types of plastic waste (high density polyethylene (HDPE), low density polyethylene (LDPE)) are blended (HDPE/LDPE blend ratio: 50/50) and then melted at a temperature of 250°C to develop the binding phase of the PWC. Subsequently, the melted plastic is mixed with mineral aggregates (sand, gravel) in two plastic contents (50% and 60%) to prepare the PWC samples. Then, the compressive and split tensile strength, stress–strain behavior, microstructure, density and water absorption ability of the PWC samples cured at different times (1, 3, 7, 28 days) are evaluated. The results of this study show the feasibility of using melted plastics as the only binder to develop a building material. From the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test and Imagej analysis, the PWC with 50% plastic content (PWC50) was found to have more voids and coarser pore structure than that with 60% plastic content (PWC60). These MIP results were also confirmed by the larger capillary pores and higher rate of absorption for PWC50 when compared to PWC60. These results were found to be in line with the strength tests for which the PWC60 with less porosity has higher strength in compression and tension than PWC50. Regardless of age and plastic waste content, the compressive strength of PWC was found to be higher than 10 MPa, which somehow exhibit interesting mechanical strength behaviour with ductile deformation and interesting post peak strength capable of supporting loads after failure. The density was found to decrease with the increase of plastic content, and the average density was close to 2 g/cm3, considered as lightweight material. The findings of this study are encouraging and place this PWC as a promising candidate for producing construction materials while diminishing the amount of plastic waste to be managed and the associated environmental issues as well as contributing to generate additional revenues.
10. Performance of component level testing for building material containing waste products
Available online 17 May 2021, In Press, Corrected ProofWhat are Corrected Proof articles?
The worldwide usage of large quantities of cement leads to increase in the CO2 emission; which is one of the major causes for global warming. Therefore, it is essential to replace cement with some novel material, with equal strength and zero CO2 emissions. In this study, an eco-friendly mix, which is formed using a new approach considering energy, CO2 emission, cost and strength for design and construction, has been proposed. This study reveals the addition of waste materials like fly ash, which can be used for material design and also can be effective by consuming less energy and emits less CO2. At the same time, it attains the required strength and workability.
11. Evaluation of thermal properties and acetaldehyde adsorption performance of sustainable composites using waste wood and biochar
Environmental Research, Volume 196, May 2021, 110910
In order to vitalize the use of wood, which is a sustainable resource, increase the utilization of resources through the recycling of wood waste, and reduce environmental pollution in the waste disposal process, biocomposite was manufactured by using biochar which can be produced with wood waste and is effective in carbon isolation. The thermal characteristics and acetaldehyde adsorption performance of the prepared biocomposite were evaluated based on the pore characteristics, surface functional groups, crystal structure, and elemental analysis results of the biochar. As a result of the experiment, as the content of biochar increased, the thermal conductivity of the biocomposite decreased and the specific heat was not affected. The acetaldehyde concentration tended to decrease as the content of biochar increased, adsorbed up to 4.4685 ppm of acetaldehyde more than the reference. From these results, it is judged that the biocomposite produced in this study can function as a sustainable composite that uses waste wood to improve indoor air quality and satisfies the performance as a building material.
12. Intelligent optimal design of floor tiles: A goal-oriented approach based on BIM and parametric design platform
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 299, 25 May 2021, 126754
Floor tile is an essential building material, which is extensively used in the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. Current existing design-aid approaches for floor tiles are based on simulating the manual design, lacking the attention to proactive planning on cut tiles. Therefore, the existing design-aid tools cannot enable users to generate accurate and comprehensive design results to reduce material and labor waste. Building information modeling (BIM) and parametric design (PD) approaches show considerable potential in optimizing building materials’ design. This research proposed a workflow based on the BIM and PD approaches to generate and optimize floor tiles’ layout design intelligently. The workflow formalizes the trades know-how cutting and planning rules of floor tiles, including the proactive planning of cut tiles, into a design algorithm to automatically generate the floor tiles planning and while reducing material waste. An evolutionary algorithm (EA) is then integrated with the workflow to conduct goal-oriented optimization for the generated planning. Moreover, due to the formalized design algorithm considering the cut tiles planning, the workflow expects to output accurate and comprehensive results, including uncut and cut tiles’ graphical and numerical results. We developed a prototype system in Rhino (a BIM platform) and Grasshopper (a PD platform) to verify the feasibility of the proposed workflow. The results show that the prototype system effectively generates and optimizes floor tiles’ layout design (using 19.1s–116.4s) and provides accurate and comprehensive coordinate points for positioning the cutting and laying of uncut and cut tiles. Compared with the industry benchmark (i.e., 10%–15%), the material waste rates of the generated layouts have been significantly reduced, which are 3.43%–5.50%. The outcomes are summarized to provide deeper insight for improving floor tile prefabrication, robot construction, and transportation, as well as the promotion of the sustainable development of the AEC industry.
13. Sustainable hybrid composites reinforced with textile waste for construction and building applications
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 284, 17 May 2021, 122800
The textile waste fibre reinforced composites are environment-friendly and economically beneficial. However, textile waste reinforced composites have not gained the attention of composite manufacturers due to limited reported studies, a variation in the waste fibre’s physical and mechanical properties that affect the resulting composite properties. In this research, new types of hybrid composites reinforced with a carded web of cotton fibres extracted from waste cotton textiles were developed by laminating with unidirectional glass fibre preform and needle punched jute nonwoven fabric. The hybrid composite reinforced with 30 wt% of glass UD preform (on the total fibre weight in the composite) shows an improvement of tensile, flexural, and izod impact strength by ~ 266, ~300, and ~ 830%, respectively, compared to cotton web reinforced composites. The hybrid composite reinforced with 14 wt% of jute nonwoven (on the total fibre weight in the composite) shows an improvement of tensile, flexural strength, and izod impact by ~ 28, ~21, and ~ 99%, respectively, compared to cotton web reinforced composites. The developed composites are thermally stable enough. The developed composites can replace low and medium-cost timber in furniture items, construction, and building materials.
14. Analysing water-energy-GHG nexus in a wastewater treatment plant of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, India
Environmental Research, Volume 196, May 2021, 110931
Developing nations are advancing towards improving municipal wastewater treatment infrastructure. However, there have been limited efforts in these countries to understand Water-Energy-GHG nexus for sustainable wastewater treatment. This study evaluates operational energy, total embodied energy and corresponding GHG emissions of a widely implemented municipal wastewater treatment technology in Mumbai Metropolitan Region of India. Data for wastewater inflow, total energy consumption and materials used in the unit processes of the treatment plant were collected and analysed. Direct GHG emissions from the plant were estimated using the method proposed by the intergovernmental panel for climate change (IPCC). The energy embodied within the materials used in the construction and operations of the plant was estimated using country-specific information. The results show that the energy intensity for plant operation and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 0.23 ± 0.05 kWh/m3 of wastewater treated and 1.12 ± 0.77 kWh/kg of COD removed, respectively. The embodied energy in chemicals and building materials during the plant’s life cycle contributed 19% of the total embodied energy. Wastewater inflow with specific average energy consumption in wet-well pumping and blowers showed a negative and positive correlation, respectively. The total GHG emissions (direct and indirect) from the plant were ~0.22 kgCO2eq/m3 of wastewater treated. The study presents the energy accounting of a wastewater treatment system and extensive analysis of infrastructural data, which is scarcely accessible and available in developing countries.
15. Optimization of mix proportion of alkali-activated slag mortars prepared with seawater and coral sand
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 284, 17 May 2021, 122805
To effectively utilize marine resources and promote sustainable development in the construction industry, an innovative building material, namely, alkali-activated slag mortars prepared with seawater and coral sand (SC-AAMs), was proposed in this paper, and its workability, setting time, compressive strength, flexural strength, and drying shrinkage were studied. The effects of the modulus of sodium silicate (Ms), Na2O-to-binder (N/B) ratio by weight, replacement ratio of the coral sand for sea sand (Rs), and water-to-binder (W/B) ratio were considered using the Taguchi orthogonal experimental design method. The experimental results indicated that an increased alkali activator modulus and alkaline contents improved the compressive and flexural strengths, however, resulting in a decreased setting time and an increased drying shrinkage. According to the results from the aforementioned orthogonal experiments, the optimum mixtures for SC-AAMs were determined to be an Ms = 1.2, a N/B = 4%, a W/B = 0.45, and a Rs = 100%. Then, the microstructure and crystalline phases in the SC-AAMs prepared with this optimum mix proportion were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively, and the cement mortar mixed by seawater and coral sand was selected as the reference. It can be concluded that the utilization of the alkali-activated materials changed the reaction hydrate products of the mortars and improved the interfacial microstructures between the coral sand and slurry. In addition, the existence of the coral sand reduced the drying shrinkage of the AAMs due to the self-curing effect inside the coral aggregate.
16. Lightweight and low thermal conducted face-centered-cubic cementitious lattice materials (FCLMs)
Composite Structures, Volume 263, 1 May 2021, 113536
Lightweight and thermal insulative cementitious materials with large porous structures for improving energy efficiency have rapid development currently. However, the design of cementitious materials for energy-efficient building system in terms of low thermal conductivity, excellent mechanical properties and lightweight remains a crucial challenge in construction & building fields. Recently, the polymer-based lattice-inspired structures fabricated by 3D printing technology (3DPT) show a rapid development that achieves a balance of thermal and mechanical properties due to their ordered and large-scale cellular architecture. In this work, a novel category of lattice-inspired cementitious lattice materials was first proposed for applying in the energy-efficient building systems by integrating the 3DPT and traditional casting technology. Taking face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice as an example, the advantages of the proposed fabrication technology and FCLMs are follows: (i) ultralight weight; (ii) enhanced ductility of brittle cementitious materials; (iii) low thermal conductivity. Through the structural and material design, the proposed fabrication technology could effectively overcome the current issues of 3DPT, such as the weakness of interlayer performance and low accuracy (Extrusion-based 3DPT) as well as limited feasible materials (Powder-bed-based 3DPT), in the civil engineering.
17. Incorporation of biochar in cementitious materials: A roadmap of biochar selection
Construction and Building Materials, Volume 283, 10 May 2021, 122757
Increasing cement production in construction sector and waste generation in industrial sectors are of the major sources of CO2 emission. For decades, it has been the concern of environmentalists to convince constructors and researchers to find sustainable solutions targeting aforementioned problems. The attempts focused on identification of wastes to be successfully complied with construction materials. Biochar has recently received attention due to several environmental and technological advantages, shortly include carbon sequestration, low thermal conductivity, chemical stability and low flammability. For this reason, biochar is recognized as an efficient candidate for cement or lightweight aggregates replacement in building materials. Biochar addition could result in a reduction of capillary absorption in mortar paste. Besides, its addition accelerates cement hydration and restricts shrinkage cracking in cement mortar. The present review categorizes all the biochar critical features affecting the performance of cementitious materials. The effect of biochar addition as filler and cement replacement on the workability, hydration, mechanical and transfer properties of cement paste/composites is reviewed in this paper. From the data collection, an optimum biochar content around 2% is shown to contribute to the improvement of mechanical properties. The gaps in the literature are identified and the future research plans are proposed.
18. A novel qPCR based-method for detection and quantification of three recurrent species of Penicillium isolated from bioaerosols in mold-damaged homes
Journal of Microbiological Methods, Available online 11 May 2021, 106236
Fungal contamination of indoor environments can cause respiratory diseases and induce damages to building materials. Among the fungal species found in mold-damaged homes, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum and P. crustosum can be considered as recurrent strains. In this study, we therefore propose a rapid and novel qPCR-based method in order to allow the monitoring of these three fungal species. The method developed allows the quantification of the target DNA of these three Penicillium species with a limit of quantification of 0.01 ng/μL without significant difference with spectrophotometry quantification assay for DNA concentrations between 5 and 100 ng/μL. This technique also enables the rapid detection of these three species in complex mixtures of DNA extracted from 15 bioaerosols collected in mold-damaged homes and previously cultured on agar plate. This new Penicillium qPCR, sensitive and specific technique can thus be easily integrated into bioaerosol studies.
19. Assessment of mussel shells building solutions: A real-scale application
Journal of Building Engineering, Available online 14 May 2021, 102635
The construction sector is a key generator of greenhouse emissions, so the use of alternative low-emission building materials is a growing tendency. This work describes and analyses an innovative sustainable building that includes mussel shells in all its constructive elements. This material is a by-product of the canning industry that is nowadays landfilled. Mussel shells were used as aggregate in the concrete strip footing (foundation) and in the exterior and interior coating mortars (walls), and as loose-fill material for the whole envelope insulation (floor, walls, and roof). The results from both the laboratory and the constructive process were useful to improve the solutions and to develop a building with low energy consumption. Finally, the energy demand of the building was assessed using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) software and the blower door test was carried out to measured air tightness. It can be concluded that mussel shell materials meet the requirements of Passive House standard for energy efficient buildings: simulation results showed a primary energy consumption of 86 kWh/(m2yr), that is a 28.3% lower than the value fixed by the standard.
20. Exploring the potential of photoluminescence for urban passive cooling and lighting applications: a new approach towards materials’ optimization
Energy, Available online 6 May 2021, 120815
Different passive strategies are investigated with the aim of reducing the overwhelming problem of energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions in the built environment. A careful selection of the urban skin can mitigate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon and, consequently, improve comfort conditions and reduce the ever-increasing energy consumption. In this context, the present study aims at investigating innovative cool materials with photoluminescent properties that may be exploited to increase energy saving thanks to the provided cost-free lighting. A new methodology for the analysis of their thermo-optical and photometric behavior is proposed, combining existing techniques dedicated to both photoluminescence and traditional building materials. The luminous samples’ performance is experimentally evaluated during both their charging and discharging phase. Furthermore, analyses of covariance are carried out in order to quantitatively assess the impact of samples’ composition on their luminous and optical performances. Results demonstrate how the latter are mainly influenced by the time of excitation and the mixture chemical compounds and testify their promising potential as cool materials for UHI mitigation and energy saving strategies. Both these outcomes pave the way for integration possibilities of photoluminescence in highly reflective urban skins, with the ability to emit light as passive lighting sources.