Thứ ba, 21/05/2024 14:05 (GMT+7)

Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 14-2024

MTĐT -  Thứ hai, 08/04/2024 15:53 (GMT+7)

Theo dõi MTĐT trên

Ban biên tập Chuyên trang Quản lý Môi trường, Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 14-2024.

Về quản lý môi trường

- Bộ dữ liệu PM2.5 liên tục theo không gian và thời gian tại lưu vực sông Mê Kông từ năm 2015 đến năm 2022 sử dụng mô hình xếp chồng.

- Tính kinh tế của sự chữa lành của thiên nhiên: Đánh giá có hệ thống và khung khái niệm về không gian xanh, đơn thuốc và các hiệp hội chi tiêu chăm sóc sức khỏe.

- Các kịch bản sử dụng bánh xe tốt cho vận tải đường bộ không có carbon vào năm 2050 ở EU.

- Tác động đến chất lượng không khí của cháy bãi chôn lấp: Một nghiên cứu điển hình từ Nhà máy xử lý chất thải rắn thành phố Brahmapuram ở Kochi, Ấn Độ.

- Sự lắng đọng bụi khoáng và các chất dinh dưỡng liên quan trong khí quyển trên Ấn Độ Dương Xích đạo.

- Khung ưu tiên thực hiện các nhiệm vụ triển khai cơ sở hạ tầng sinh thái đô thị (UEI) dựa trên nhu cầu sinh thái của người dân và chính sách của chính phủ.

- Đánh giá có hệ thống về quản lý chất thải tổng hợp vùng ven biển cho các chiến lược bền vững.

- Dự kiến khả năng hấp thụ carbon của thực vật dưới tác động của biến đổi khí hậu ở Ấn Độ sẽ suy giảm.

- Văn hóa và đầu tư vào quan hệ đối tác công tư xanh.

- Tác động của chuyển đổi kỹ thuật số đến khả năng cạnh tranh carbon quốc tế: Bằng chứng thực nghiệm từ quá trình phân hủy trong sản xuất.

Về môi trường đô thị

- Ảnh hưởng của lượng mưa cực lớn đến quần thể vi khuẩn và thành phần khí dung sinh học: Sự phân tán trong môi trường ngoài trời đô thị và các nguy cơ sức khỏe.

- Sự thay đổi của amoniac không khí xung quanh ở các đô thị Châu Âu (Phần Lan, Pháp, Ý, Tây Ban Nha và Vương quốc Anh).

- Số phận nitơ ở đô thị – Trường hợp Zielona Góra, Ba Lan.

- Công cụ đánh giá nhanh lượng nước mưa lũ cho lưu vực đô thị: Phương pháp học máy.

- Đồng xử lý liên tục hệ thống thoát nước mỏ với nước thải đô thị.

- Xây dựng mạng lưới đảo lạnh để giảm thiểu hiệu ứng đảo nhiệt đô thị.

- Dấu vân tay huỳnh quang như một chỉ số để xác định các nguồn phi điểm đô thị trên sông đô thị trong thời kỳ mưa.

- Các hợp chất hữu cơ mới nổi là dấu hiệu cho thấy sự suy thoái của trạng thái cân bằng định tính và định lượng nước ngầm trong bối cảnh mở rộng đô thị nhanh chóng.

- Hiểu biết sâu sắc về tác động của quá trình phân hủy chất hữu cơ hòa tan trong các hồ đô thị với các trạng thái dinh dưỡng khác nhau.

Về môi trường khu công nghiệp

- Đo lường mức tăng hiệu quả của việc hợp nhất các thị trường carbon – Mô phỏng vi mô cho các nguồn nhiệt điện và công nghiệp.

- Định hướng phát triển bền vững thông qua kiểm kê phát thải khí nhà kính: Thực tiễn ESG và chuyển đổi năng lượng trong ngành dệt may may sẵn của Bangladesh.

- Quá trình mô phỏng quá trình co-HTC của bùn thải và chất thải thực phẩm và quá trình khí hóa nước siêu tới hạn của nước thải tích hợp với các nhà máy khí sinh học.

- Phân bố và đánh giá rủi ro sinh thái của các chất ô nhiễm nước ưu tiên trong trầm tích bề mặt sông, tập trung vào các khu vực bị ảnh hưởng công nghiệp.

- Phát thải carbon và phát triển carbon thấp trong ngành công nghiệp Olefin.

- Ảnh hưởng của việc khai thác than và các yếu tố khí hậu-môi trường đến sự phát triển của đồng cỏ Á-Âu điển hình.

- Dự đoán lượng phát thải ô nhiễm không khí của ngành công nghiệp đúc: Dựa trên dữ liệu lớn về điện.

- Động lực của chiến lược giảm cường độ carbon và phát thải trong công nghiệp nặng: Bằng chứng từ quan điểm phi tuyến tính và không gian.

- Đánh giá mối quan tâm về môi trường đối với việc giảm thiểu ô nhiễm của doanh nghiệp.

Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 14-2024/ International Environmental Bulletin No. 14-2024
Ảnh minh hoạ. ITN

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT / QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG

1. An umbrella review of the evidence associating occupational carcinogens and cancer risk at 19 anatomical sites

Environmental Pollution, Volume 345, 15 March 2024, 123531

Abstract

Occupational exposure to carcinogens of increasing cancer risk have been extensively suggested. A robust assessment of these evidence is needed to guide public policy and health care. We aimed to classify the strength of evidence for associations of 13 occupational carcinogens (OCs) and risk of cancers. We searched PubMed and Web of Science up to November 2022 to identify potentially relevant studies. We graded the evidence into convincing, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak, or not significant according to a standardized classification based on: random-effects p value, number of cancer cases, 95% confidence interval of largest study, heterogeneity between studies, 95% prediction interval, small study effect, excess significance bias and sensitivity analyses with credibility ceilings.

The quality of meta-analysis was evaluated by AMSTAR 2. Forty-eight articles yielded 79 meta-analyses were included in current umbrella review. Evidence of associations were convincing (class I) or highly suggeastive (class II) for asbestos exposure and increasing risk of lung cancer among smokers (RR = 8.79, 95%CI: 5.81–13.25 for cohort studies and OR = 8.68, 95%CI: 5.68–13.24 for case-control studies), asbestos exposure and increasing risk of mesothelioma (RR = 4.61, 95%CI: 2.57–8.26), and formaldehyde exposure and increasing risk of sinonasal cancer (RR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.38–2.05). Fifteen associations were supported by suggestive evidence (class III). In summary, the current umbrella review found strong associations between: asbestos exposure and increasing risk of lung cancer among smokers; asbestos exposure and increasing risk of mesothelioma; and formaldehyde exposure and higher risk of sinonasal cancer. Other associations might be genuine, but substantial uncertainty remains.

2. Spatiotemporally continuous PM2.5 dataset in the Mekong River Basin from 2015 to 2022 using a stacking model

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169801

Abstract

With the potential to cause millions of deaths, PM2.5 pollution has become a global concern. In Southeast Asia, the Mekong River Basin (MRB) is experiencing heavy PM2.5 pollution and the existing PM2.5 studies in the MRB are limited in terms of accuracy and spatiotemporal coverage. To achieve high-accuracy and long-term PM2.5 monitoring of the MRB, fused aerosol optical depth (AOD) data and multi-source auxiliary data are fed into a stacking model to estimate PM2.5 concentrations. The proposed stacking model takes advantage of convolutional neural network (CNN) and Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM) models and can well represent the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of the PM2.5-AOD relationship.

In the cross-validation (CV), comparison with CNN and LightGBM models shows that the stacking model can better suppress overfitting, with a higher coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.92, a lower root mean square error (RMSE) of 5.58 μg/m3, and a lower mean absolute error (MAE) of 3.44 μg/m3. For the first time, the high-accuracy PM2.5 dataset reveals spatially and temporally continuous PM2.5 pollution and variations in the MRB from 2015 to 2022. Moreover, the spatiotemporal variations of annual and monthly PM2.5 pollution are also investigated at the regional and national scales. The dataset will contribute to the analysis of the causes of PM2.5 pollution and the development of mitigation policies in the MRB.

3. Reconstruction of a century of air pollution history in Nanjing, China, using trace elements in situ leaf specimens of Platanus × hispanica and Pittosporum tobira

Environmental Pollution, Volume 345, 15 March 2024, 123290

Abstract

Leaves can specifically uptake trace elements from the surrounding environment. And tree leaves are a good biological indicator for air pollution. Therefore, chemical analysis of leaf specifications can be used to reproduce a historical record of air pollution. To better understand the history of urban air pollution from the 1920s to the 2020s in Nanjing, China, leaf samples of two woody plants, Platanus × hispanica and Pittosporum tobira, were collected in this study as environmental indicators from different historical periods. These included historical herbarium specimens and current leaves from live trees.

The concentrations of 10 trace elements were determined in the samples using ICP‒MS. Pollution indices were calculated, yielding the key findings. The historical leaf samples showed continuously increasing mean concentrations of the 10 trace elements over time, which significantly correlating with automobile quantities and the number of large-scale industrial enterprises (p < 0.05). Moreover, modern leaf trace element concentrations were significantly correlated with PM10, PM2.5, automobiles, large-scale industrial enterprises, and atmospheric factors, confirming these as sources. In addition to the historical growth trend, spatial heterogeneity was revealed in historical Platanus × hispanica leaf samples from the 14 sites in Nanjing.

Changes in heavy metal trace element pollution distributions were consistent with transportation and industrial expansion, with homologous patterns across elements. Specifically, post 1980s increases were observed in the representative NJ2 (Zhongshan Botanical Garden) and the NJ5(Nanjing University) sites, with higher concentrations occurring at in the NJ5 contaminated site than at the NJ2 uncontaminated site. After 2009, the 10 element (except Cd) pollution indices in Platanus × hispanica leaves fluctuated but declined overall. This reconstruction of Nanjing's air pollution history demonstrates that ample environmental information can be extracted from plant leaf markers over time and space.

4. The economics of nature's healing touch: A systematic review and conceptual framework of green space, pharmaceutical prescriptions, and healthcare expenditure associations

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169635

Abstract

Green spaces play a crucial role in promoting sustainable and healthy lives. Recent evidence shows that green space also may reduce the need for healthcare, prescription medications, and associated costs. This systematic review provides the first comprehensive assessment of the available literature examining green space exposure and its associations with healthcare prescriptions and expenditures. We applied Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to search MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for observational studies published in English through May 6, 2023. A quality assessment of the included studies was conducted using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) tool, and the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) assessment was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence. Our search retrieved 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria and were included in our review.

Among these, 20 studies (77 % of the total) showed beneficial associations of green space exposure with healthcare prescriptions or expenditures. However, most studies had risks of bias, and the overall strength of evidence for both outcomes was limited. Based on our findings and related bodies of literature, we present a conceptual framework to explain the possible associations and complex mechanisms underlying green space and healthcare outcomes. The framework differs from existing green space and health models by including upstream factors related to healthcare access (i.e., rurality and socioeconomic status), which may flip the direction of associations. Additional research with lower risks of bias is necessary to validate this framework and better understand the potential for green space to reduce healthcare prescriptions and expenditures.

5. Well-to-wheels scenarios for 2050 carbon-neutral road transport in the EU

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141084

Abstract

The present study explores net carbon-neutral road transport options in the EU27 in 2050 from a well-to-wheel (WtW) perspective. To this aim, three scenarios have been developed regarding the evolution of the road vehicle fleet composition in terms of the degree of electrification of powertrains, and technical measures such as vehicle efficiency improvements, transport flow, and transport volumes have been considered. The fleet scenarios are further combined with four scenarios deploying different mixes of alternative fuels in 2050, including electricity, e-fuels, liquid/gaseous advanced biofuels and remaining fossil fuel components.

Two different electricity production pathways are considered, as well, one of them assuming fully renewable electricity production, and an alternative one including residual shares of nuclear and natural gas power plants plus carbon capture and storage. The Joint Research Centre's DIONE model was used for the scenario calculations. From a tank-to-wheel (TtW) perspective, each scenario reduces energy consumption, mainly due to powertrain electrification, with EU27 TtW road vehicle energy consumption in 2050 ranging from roughly 650 to 1650 TWh, which is 20%–53% of that of 2019.

For the most strongly electrified fleet scenario with optimistic assumptions on measures to improve vehicle efficiency, transport flow and transport volumes and renewable electricity production, well-to-tank (WtT) energy consumption is around 110–160 TWh, depending on the fuel scenario. If a moderately electrified fleet is propelled with e-fuels, even when assuming fully renewable electricity and optimistic measures, the WtT energy consumption increases ten times or more, to 1300 TWh (2150 TWh with pessimistic measures). The results show that fleet electrification is the strongest lever for WtW transport energy consumption reduction among the options considered.

Other efficiency measures contribute significantly to energy savings, but their benefit decreases with increasing fleet electrification. The production pathways of fuels make a substantial difference for WtW fleet energy requirement if the fleet is moderately electrified, in which case e-fuels require significant amounts of additional renewable electricity. Nevertheless, fuel production pathways become irrelevant from an energetic point of view under very ambitious electrification scenarios since fuel volumes become marginal. The economic feasibility and the societal acceptability of different pathways towards WtW carbon-neutrality of road transport is out of scope of this paper and requires further investigation.

6. PM2.5 air quality and health gains in the quest for carbon peaking: A case study of Fujian Province, China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170161

Abstract

China faces a dual challenge of improving air quality and reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Stringent clean air actions gradually narrow the end-of-pipe (EOP) pollution control potential. Meanwhile, pursuing carbon peaking will reduce air pollution and health risks. However, the impact on air quality and health gains in individual Chinese provinces has not been assessed with a specific focus on local policies.

Here, typical shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and local policies (i.e., business as usual, BAU; end-of-pipe controls, EOP; co-control mitigation, CCM) are combined to set three scenarios (i.e., BAU-SSP3, EOP-SSP4, CCM-SSP1). Under these three scenarios, we couple the Low Emissions Analysis Platform (LEAP) model, an air quality model and health risk assessment methodology to evaluate the characteristics of carbon peaking in Fujian Province. PM2.5 air quality and impacts on public health are assessed, using the metric of the deaths attributable to PM2.5 pollution (DAPP).

The results show that energy-related CO2 emissions will only peak before 2030 in the CCM-SSP1 scenario. In this context, air pollutant emission pathways reveal that mitigation is limited under the EOP-SSP4 scenario, necessitating further mitigation under the CCM-SSP1 scenario. The annual average PM2.5 level is projected to be 16.5 μg·m−3 in 2035 with a corresponding decrease in DAPP of 297 (95 % confidence intervals: 217–308) compared with that of 2020. Despite the significant improvements in PM2.5 air quality and health gains under the CCM-SSP1 scenario, reaching the 5 μg·m−3 target of the World Health Organization (WHO) remains difficult. Furthermore, population aging will require stronger PM2.5 mitigation to enhance health gains. This study provides a valuable reference for other developing regions to co-control air pollution and GHGs.

7. Air quality impacts of landfill fires: A case study from the Brahmapuram Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant in Kochi, India

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170289

Abstract

The occurrence of waste fires in unscientifically managed landfill sites has become a pressing environmental issue in the urban centers of developing economies. In the present work, an investigation was carried out to evaluate the air quality implications of three major fire events that occurred at the Brahmapuram Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Plant (BMSWTP) in Kochi, India. Initially, Landsat-based surface temperature monitoring was conducted to identify the thermal hotspots within the landfill.

The emissions of different pollutants during waste fires were quantified and compared between satellite-based ex-situ and field-based in-situ methods. The dispersion patterns of PM2.5 particles released during the fires were visualised using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) particle dispersion model.

The Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) was employed to quantify the greenhouse gases (GHGs) released during waste storage, which was then compared with the GHGs emissions during waste fires. In-situ emission estimates showed that the combustion of waste at BMSWTP led to the release of 909.3 MT of PM10, 938.8 MT of PM2.5, 5832.9 MT of CO, 43.6 MT of SOx, 284.2 MT of NOx, 138,941.9 MT of CO2, 426.8 MT of CH4, and 2665.1 MT of VOC. However, a noticeable disparity was observed between the in-situ and ex-situ emission estimates, wherein the latter underestimated the actual emissions. Most of the emitted PM2.5 particles propagated oceanward under the influence of prevailing winds, covering the densely populated areas of Kochi municipal corporation. The amount of CH4 and CO2 emitted during the waste fires was on par with the emissions from 159 days of waste storage for CH4 and 51.8 years of waste storage for CO2, with a cumulative global warming potential of 147.9 Gg CO2-e.

8. Atmospheric deposition of mineral dust and associated nutrients over the Equatorial Indian Ocean

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 169779

Abstract

Aerosols are potential supplier of nutrients to the surface water of oceans and can impact biogeochemical processes particularly in the remote locations. The nutrient data from atmospheric supply is poorly reported from the Indian Ocean region. In this study, we present atmospheric nutrients such as reactive nitrogen species (Nitrate, Ammonium, Organic nitrogen), micro-nutrients (e.g. Fe, Mn and Cu) concentration along with mineral dust in the aerosol samples collected over meridional transect during summer (April–May 2018) and monsoon (June–July 2019) months.

A significant spatial variation of dust was observed during summer (0.6–22.8 μg m−3) and monsoon (2.8–25.1 μg m−3) months with a decreasing trend from north to south. Dust as well as other nutrient species shows a general north to south decreasing trend, however, no such trend was seen in the soluble trace elements (TEs) concentration. Anthropogenic species like NH4+ and nss-K+ were found below detection limit during monsoon campaign. The fractional solubility (in percentage) of Fe, Mn and Cu were estimated by measuring their concentration in ultrapure water leach which averaged around 0.99 ± 1.12, 31.0 ± 14.9 and 31.1 ± 25.4, respectively during summer and 0.09 ± 0.08, 6.0 ± 8.9, 16.7 ± 9.6, respectively, during monsoon period. Correlation of soluble Fe with total Fe and total acidic species suggest varying dust sources is an important controlling factor for the fraction solubility of Fe with negligible contribution from the chemical processing. However, a significant correlation was observed between total acid and fractional solubility of Mn and Cu suggest role of chemical processing in enhancement of their solubility.

Dry deposition flux of aeolian dust was estimated for both campaign using Al concentration and relatively higher fluxes were observed for summer (12.6 ± 8.4 mg·m−2·d−1) and monsoon (8.7 ± 8.4 mg·m−2·d−1) months as compared to model based estimates reported in the literature. Contrastingly, estimated deposition flux of soluble Fe from both campaign displays relatively lower values as compared to model based results which underscores a need for re-evaluation of biogeochemical models with real-time data.

9. A framework for prioritizing urban ecological infrastructure (UEI) implementation tasks based on residents' ecological demands and government policies

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 354, March 2024, 120369

Abstract

With rapid urbanization, balancing urban ecological infrastructure (UEI) construction and residents’ ecological demands (RED) has become an imperative but challenging issue for sustainable development. This study develops an integrated framework to systematically prioritize UEI implementation based on localized RED and government policies. We incorporate the Kano model and quality function deployment (QFD) approach to quantify the complex associations between various resident needs and existing policies.

Taking Chengdu City as a case study, resident surveys and policy reviews are conducted to construct the demand-policy linkage matrix and determine the importance of UEI tasks. Results reveal that, (1) flood control capacity is most prioritized by RED, followed by wetland area and less PM2.5, while cultural service demands rank lower; (2) Forest coverage, green space development, wetland construction and park construction emerge as priority UEI implementation tasks that can maximize fulfilling RED. This novel framework enables adaptive customization of UEI planning for different cities through configurable modeling. It provides a valuable decision support tool that enables optimizing or improving the prioritization of UEI implementation tasks based on residents' preferences. The research results have important reference value for the prioritization of UEI implementation tasks.

10. Policy implications for synergistic management of PM2.5 and O3 pollution from a pattern-process-sustainability perspective in China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170210

Abstract

In recent years, the pattern of air pollution in China has changed profoundly, and PM2.5 and surface ozone (O3) have become the main air pollutants affecting the air quality of cities and regions in China. The synergistic control of the two has become the key to the sustainable improvement of air quality in China. In this study, we investigated and analyzed the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, exposure health risks, key drivers, and sustainable characteristics of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations in China from 2013 to 2022 at the national and city cluster scales by combining methodological models such as spatial statistics, trend analysis, exposure-response function, Hurst index, and multi-scale geographically weighted regression (MGWR) model. Ultimately, a synergistic management system for PM2.5 and O3 pollution was proposed. The results showed that: (1) The PM2.5 concentration decreased at a rate of 1.45 μg/m3 per year (p < 0.05), while the O3 concentration increased at a rate of 2.54 μg/m3 per year (p < 0.05).

The trends of the two concentrations showed significant differences in spatial distribution. (2) Population exposure risks to pollutants showed an increasing trend, with PM2.5 and O3 increasing by 55.1 % and 42.7 %, respectively. The annual deaths associated with exposure to PM2.5 and O3 demonstrated a decreasing and inverted U-shaped trend, respectively, with annual average deaths of 1.312 million and 98,000. Significant regional disparities in health risks from these pollutants were influenced by socio-economic factors such as industrial activities and population density. In the future, it is expected that more than half of China's regions will be exposed to rising risks of PM2.5 and O3 population exposure. (3) Key drivers of regional exacerbation in PM2.5 and O3 levels include the number of industrial enterprises above designated size (NSIE) and population agglomeration (PA), while the disposable income of urban residents (URDI), technological innovation (TI), and government attention level (GAL) emerged as primary factors in controlling pollution hotspots, ranked in order of influence from greatest to least as TI > GAL > URDI. Overall, this study sheds light on the current status of air pollution and health risk sustainability in China and enhances the understanding of future air pollution dynamics in China. The results of the study may help to develop effective targeted control measures to synergize the management of PM2.5 and O3 in different regions.

11. A systematic review of coastal zone integrated waste management for sustainability strategies

Environmental Research, Volume 245, 15 March 2024, 117968

Abstract

Coastal areas stand out because of their rich biodiversity and high tourist potential due to their privileged geographical position. However, one of the main problems in these areas is the generation of waste and its management, which must consider technical and sustainable criteria. This work aims to conduct a systematic review of the scientific literature on integrated solid waste management (ISWM) by considering scientific publications on the scientific basis for the proposal of sustainability strategies in the context of use and efficiency. The overall method comprises i) Search strategy, merging and processing of the databases (Scopus and Web of Science); ii) Evolution of coastal zone waste management; iii) Systematic reviews on coastal landfills and ISWM in the context of the circular economy; and iv) Quantitative synthesis in integrated waste management.

The results show 282 studies focused on coastal landfills and 59 papers on ISWM with the application of circular economy criteria. Systematic reviews allowed for the definition of criteria for the selection of favorable sites, such as i) sites far from the coastline, ii) impermeable soils at their base to avoid contamination of aquifers, iii) use of remote sensing and geographic information system tools for continuous monitoring, iv) mitigation of possible contamination of ecosystems, v) planning the possibility of restoration (reforestation) and protection of the environment. In coastal zones, it is necessary to apply the ISWM approach to avoid landfill flooding and protect the marine environment, reducing rubbish and waste on beaches and oceans. Therefore, applying the circular economy in ISWM is critical to sustainability in coastal environments, with the planet's natural processes and variations due to climate change.

12. Projected decline in the strength of vegetation carbon sequestration under climate change in India

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170166

Abstract

Tropical vegetation plays a critical role in terrestrial carbon budget and supply many ecological functions such as carbon sequestration. In recent decades, India has witnessed an increase in net primary productivity (NPP), an important measure of carbon sequestration. However, uncertainties persist regarding the sustainability of these land carbon sinks in the face of climate change. The enhanced NPP is driven by the strong CO2 fertilization effect (CFE), but the temporal patterns of this feedback remain unclear. Using the carbon flux data from the Earth System Models (ESMs), an increasing trend in NPP was observed, with projections of NPP to 2.00 ± 0.12 PgCyr-1 (25 % increase) during 2021-2049, 2.36 ± 0.12 PgCyr-1 (18 % increase) during 2050-2079, and 2.67 ± 0.07 PgCyr-1 (13 % increase) during 2080-2099 in Indian vegetation under SSP585 scenario.

This suggests a significant decline in the NPP growth rate. To understand the feedback mechanisms driving NPP, the relative effects of CFE and warming were analyzed. Comparing simulations from the biogeochemically coupled model (BGC) with the fully coupled model, the BGC model projected a 74.7 % increase in NPP, significantly higher than the 55.9 % increase projected by the fully coupled model by the end of the century. This indicates that the consistent increase in NPP was associated with CO2 fertilization. More importantly, results reveal that the decrease in the NPP growth rate was due to the declining contribution of CFE at a rate of -0.62 % per 100 ppm CO2 increase. This decline could be attributed to factors such as nutrient limitations and high temperatures. Additionally, significant shifts in the strength of carbon sinks in offsetting the CO2 emissions were identified, decreasing at a rate of -1.15 % per decade. This decline in the strength of vegetation carbon sequestration may increase the societal dependence on mitigation measures to address climate change.

13. Culture and investment in green public-private partnerships

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141122

Abstract

Infrastructure public-private partnerships (PPPs) represent a significant opportunity to address the challenges of climate change. Yet few PPP projects leverage this opportunity. While prior work has mainly focused on economic and technical determinants of renewable energy investments, this study considers the role of national culture on investments in renewable energy PPPs. The empirical analysis of 1708 renewable energy PPPs across 20 countries reveals that the cultural value of individualism is negatively related to the size of financial investment in a renewable energy PPP project. The findings also demonstrate that the negative effect of individualism on investments in green energy PPPs is further reinforced in culturally tight societies. Post hoc analysis reveals that multilateral support from development banks in green PPPs may help alleviate the cultural tightness impediment. The findings contribute to the literature that seeks to explain the barriers to adoption of renewable energy. A key implication of these findings is that policymakers and development organizations’ efforts to encourage renewable energy adoption are more likely to produce greater impact for the planet when they are sensitive to the sources of cultural variation in society.

14. Health benefits of vehicle electrification through air pollution in Shanghai, China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169859

Abstract

Vehicle electrification has been recognized for its potential to reduce emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases in China. Several studies have estimated how national-level policies of electric vehicle (EV) adoption might bring very large environmental and public health benefits from improved air quality to China. However, large-scale adoption is very costly, some regions derive more benefits from large-scale EV adoption than others, and the benefits of replacing internal combustion engines in specific cities are less known. Therefore, it is important for policymakers to design incentives based on regional characteristics – especially for megacities like Shanghai – which typically suffer from worse air quality and where a larger population is exposed to emissions from vehicles.

Over the past five years, Shanghai has offered substantial personal subsidies for passenger EVs to accelerate its electrification efforts. Still, it remains uncertain whether EV benefits justify the strength of incentives. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the health and climate benefits of replacing light-duty gasoline vehicles (ICEVs) with battery EVs in the city of Shanghai. We assess health impacts due to ICEV emissions of primary fine particulate matter, NOx, and volatile organic compounds, and to powerplant emissions of NOx and SO2 due to EV charging. We incorporate climate benefits from reduced greenhouse gas emissions based on existing research. We find that the benefit of replacing the average ICEV with an EV in Shanghai is US$6400 (2400-14,700), with health impacts of EVs about 20 times lower than the average ICEV. Larger benefits ensue if older ICEVs are replaced, but replacing newer China ICEVs also achieves positive health benefits. As Shanghai plans to stop providing personal subsidies for EV purchases in 2024, our results show that EVs achieve public health and climate benefits and can help inform policymaking strategies in Shanghai and other megacities.

15. The impact of digital transformation on international carbon competitiveness: Empirical evidence from manufacturing decomposition

Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 443, 1 March 2024, 141184

Abstract

Trade-induced carbon transfer has emerged as a significant contributor to global carbon emissions, with international carbon competitiveness playing a pivotal role in this transfer. Based on a sample of 43 major economies from 2000 to 2014, this paper empirically examines the influence of digital transformation on the international carbon competitiveness of the manufacturing sector. The results reveal a substantial enhancement in manufacturing's international carbon competitiveness facilitated by digital transformation.

Three primary mechanisms drive this enhancement: the scale effect, advancement of the forward global value chains position, and an improved energy structure. Notably, both domestic and foreign sources of digital transformation bolster the international carbon competitiveness of domestic manufacturing. Furthermore, the enabling of segmented digital industry strengthens this competitiveness, especially in publishing, programming, and broadcasting activities. This paper enriches the research on the environmental implications of digital transformation and offers insights for policymakers aiming to boost international carbon competitiveness and promote greener industrial growth.

16. Beneficial impacts of residential greenness on sleep deprivation in adults aged 19 or older living in South Korea: A nationwide community health survey in 2011–2018

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169700

Abstract

Background

Evidence of the relationship between greenness and sleep is limited, and, given the worsening sleep insufficiency worldwide, this relationship needs elucidation. In this study, we investigated the association of greenness with sleep deprivation using nationwide survey data.

Methods

This study included 1,727,273 participants in the Korea Community Health Survey who resided in all 229 districts of South Korea from 2011 to 2018. Sleep deprivation variables were defined as strong deprivation or mild deprivation, based on average daily sleep duration of <5 or 5–6 h, respectively. District-specific annual average of satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index (EVI) was used as a green space exposure. A logistic regression with complex survey weights was used to estimate the association between greenness and sleep deprivation, and it was further examined by sex, age group, educational status, income level, and population density. The regression analysis was performed annually, and the annual estimates were pooled by a combined data analysis.

Results

A higher level of greenness was associated (odds ratio [95 % confidence interval]) with strong and mild sleep deprivation (0.96 [0.93–0.99] and 0.96 [0.95–0.97]), respectively, and males and the younger age group (<65 years) showed a more prominent association with greenness than in females and the elderly group (65 years or older). In addition, only high-population-density areas showed evident associations of greenness with both strong and mild sleep deprivation.

Conclusions

This large population-based study provides important epidemiological evidence for improving sleep quantity through an increase in greenness exposure and supports policymakers in establishing strategies for urban planning.

URBAN ENVIRONMENT/ MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ

1. Effects of extreme precipitation on bacterial communities and bioaerosol composition: Dispersion in urban outdoor environments and health risks

Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123406

Abstract

Concerns about contaminants dispersed by seasonal precipitation have grown due to their potential hazards to outdoor environments and human health. However, studies on the crucial environmental factors influencing dispersion changes in bacterial communities are limited. This research adopted four-season in situ monitoring and sequencing techniques to examine the regional distribution profiles of bioaerosols, bacterial communities, and risks associated with extreme snowfall versus rainfall events in two monsoon cities. In the early-hours of winter snowfall, airborne cultivable bioaerosol concentrations were 4.1 times higher than the reference exposure limit (500 CFU/m3). The concentration of ambient particles (2.5 μm) exceeded 24,910 particles/L (97 μg/m3), positively correlating with the prevalence of cultivable bioaerosols. These bioaerosols contained cultivable bacterial species such as pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Bioaerosol concentrations increased by 53.0% during 50-mm snow extremes.

Taxonomic analysis revealed that Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Veillonella were the most abundant bacterial taxa in the initial snowmelt samples during winter precipitation. However, their abundance decreased by 87.6% as snowing continued (24 h). Reduced water base cation concentration also led to a 1.15-fold increase in the Shannon index, indicating a similar yet heightened bacterial diversity. Seasonally, Pedobacter and Massilia showed higher relative abundance (25% and 18%, respectively), presenting increased bacterial transmission to the soil. Furthermore, Pseudomonas was identified in 60% of spring snowstorm samples, suggesting long-distance dispersal of pathogenic bacteria. When these atmospheric aerosol particles carrying biological entities (0.65–1.1 μm) penetrated human alveoli, the calculated hazard ratio was 0.55, which as observed in inhalation exposures. Consequently, this study underscores the risk of seasonal precipitation-enhanced ambient bacterial transmission.

2. Wintertime fine aerosol particles composition and its evolution in two megacities of southern and northern China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 914, 1 March 2024, 169778

Abstract

Study on fine aerosols composition can help understand the particles formation and is crucial for improving the accuracy of model simulations. Based on field data measured by a Q-ACSM (Quadrupole-Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor), we have comprehensively compared the characteristics, evolution, and potential formation mechanisms of the components in NR-PM2.5 during wintertime at two megacities (Beijing and Guangzhou) of southern and northern China.

We show that as PM pollution intensifies, the mass fraction of the primary aerosols (e.g., COA, HOA) in PM2.5 in Guangzhou increased, along with a slight decline in proportion of both the secondary organic (SOA) and inorganic (SIA) aerosols; In contrast, in Beijing, the proportion of the SIA ramped up from 28 % to 53 % with the pollution evolution; and the fraction of SOA in total OA also increased due to a substantial increment in the proportion of MO-OOA (from 29 % to 48 %), suggesting a significance of the secondary processes in worsening aerosols pollution in Beijing.

Our further analysis demonstrates a leading role of aqueous pathway in the secondary formation of aerosols at the Beijing site, presenting an exponential rising of SIA and SOA with the relative humidity (RH) increase. Compared to Beijing, however, we find that the photochemical oxidation other than aqueous process in Guangzhou plays a more critical role in those secondary aerosols formation. Combined with the Hysplit trajectory model, we identify the high humid conditions in Guangzhou are typically affected by clean marine air masses, explaining the slower response of secondary components to the RH changes. Moreover, the particles in Guangzhou were observed less hygroscopic that is adverse to the aerosol aqueous chemistry. The results provide basis for the precise control of PM pollution in different regions across China and would be helpful in improving model simulations.

3. Variability of ambient air ammonia in urban Europe (Finland, France, Italy, Spain, and the UK)

Environment International, Volume 185, March 2024, 108519

Abstract

This study addressed the scarcity of NH3 measurements in urban Europe and the diverse monitoring protocols, hindering direct data comparison. Sixty-nine datasets from Finland, France, Italy, Spain, and the UK across various site types, including industrial (IND, 8), traffic (TR, 12), urban (UB, 22), suburban (SUB, 12), and regional background (RB, 15), are analyzed to this study. Among these, 26 sites provided 5, or more, years of data for time series analysis. Despite varied protocols, necessitating future harmonization, the average NH3 concentration across sites reached 8.0 ± 8.9 μg/m3. Excluding farming/agricultural hotspots (FAHs), IND and TR sites had the highest concentrations (4.7 ± 3.2 and 4.5 ± 1.0 μg/m3), followed by UB, SUB, and RB sites (3.3 ± 1.5, 2.7 ± 1.3, and 1.0 ± 0.3 μg/m3, respectively) indicating that industrial, traffic, and other urban sources were primary contributors to NH3 outside FAH regions. When referring exclusively to the FAHs, concentrations ranged from 10.0 ± 2.3 to 15.6 ± 17.2 μg/m3, with the highest concentrations being reached in RB sites close to the farming and agricultural sources, and that, on average for FAHs there is a decreasing NH3 concentration gradient towards the city. Time trends showed that over half of the sites (18/26) observed statistically significant trends.

Approximately 50 % of UB and TR sites showed a decreasing trend, while 30 % an increasing one. Meta-analysis revealed a small insignificant decreasing trend for non-FAH RB sites. In FAHs, there was a significant upward trend at a rate of 3.51[0.45,6.57]%/yr. Seasonal patterns of NH3 concentrations varied, with urban areas experiencing fluctuations influenced by surrounding emissions, particularly in FAHs. Diel variation showed differing patterns at urban monitoring sites, all with higher daytime concentrations, but with variations in peak times depending on major emission sources and meteorological patterns. These results offer valuable insights into the spatio-temporal patterns of gas-phase NH3 concentrations in urban Europe, contributing to future efforts in benchmarking NH3 pollution control in urban areas.

4. The fate of nitrogen in the urban area – The case of Zielona Góra, Poland

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 169930

Abstract

The anthropogenic change of the nitrogen (N) cycle is strongly triggered by urban demand (such as food and meat consumption, energy demand and transport). As a consequence of high population density, impacts on human health through water and air pollution also concentrate on a city environment. Thus, an urban perspective on a predominantly rural pollution becomes relevant. Urban N budgets may be considered less intrinsically connected, so that separation of an agri-food chain and an industry-combustion chain is warranted.

Results have been obtained for Zielona Góra, Poland, a city of 140,000 inhabitants characterized by domestic and transport sources and forest-dominated surroundings. In addition to food imports in Zielona Gora amounting to about 30 %, in the suburban area a significant share of N amounting to 41 % is related to fertilizer imports. The remaining imports are in fuel, electronics, textiles, plastics and paper. Most of the agri-food N (45 %) is denitrified in wastewater treatment. N associated with combustion (mainly NOx emissions from vehicles) represents a much smaller share than N entering via the agri-food system, amounting to 22 % of the total N imports. This overall picture is maintained also when specifically addressing the city center, with the exception of mineral fertilizer that plays a much smaller role, with just 7 % of N imports to the city.

5. Tool for fast assessment of stormwater flood volumes for urban catchment: A machine learning approach

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 355, March 2024, 120214

Abstract

Specific flood volume is an important criterion for evaluating the performance of sewer networks. Currently, mechanistic models - MCMs (e.g., SWMM) are usually used for its prediction, but they require the collection of detailed information about the characteristics of the catchment and sewer network, which can be difficult to obtain, and the process of model calibration is a complex task. This paper presents a methodology for developing simulators to predict specific flood volume using machine learning methods (DNN - Deep Neural Network, GAM - Generalized Additive Model). The results of Sobol index calculations using the GSA method were used to select the ML model as an alternative to the MCM model. It was shown that the DNN model can be used for flood prediction, for which high agreement was obtained between the results of GSA calculations for rainfall data, catchment and sewer network characteristics, and calibrated SWMM parameters describing land use and sewer retention.

Regression relationships (polynomials and exponential functions) were determined between Sobol indices (retention depth of impervious area, correction factor of impervious area, Manning's roughness coefficient of sewers) and sewer network characteristics (unit density of sewers, retention factor - the downstream and upstream of retention ratio) obtaining R2 = 0. 55–0.78. The feasibility of predicting sewer network flooding and modernization with the DNN model using a limited range of input data compared to the SWMM was shown. The developed model can be applied to the management of urban catchments with limited access to data and at the stage of urban planning.

6. Real-world emission characteristics of carbonyl compounds from on-road vehicles in Beijing and Zhengzhou, China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 916, 15 March 2024, 170135

Abstract

Carbonyl compounds have a profound role in atmospheric chemistry, which can cause the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. On-road vehicle emissions are an important source of carbonyl compounds, but systematic knowledge of real-world emission characteristics is still scarce. In this study, a total of 181 on-road vehicles of 16 types in Beijing and Zhengzhou, China, were tested using portable emission measurement system under real-world driving conditions. The total carbonyl compound emission factors of gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles, motorcycles, and agricultural transport vehicles were 24.9 ± 11.4 mg/km, 42.5 ± 21.5 mg/km, 20.4 ± 6.8 mg/km, and 78.3 ± 34.3 mg/km, respectively. Vehicles fueled with E10 ethanol gasoline had significantly higher carbonyl compound emission factors compared to E0 gasoline vehicles. It was observed that the continuous tightening of emission standards has effectively reduced the emissions of carbonyl compounds from on-road vehicles.

The carbonyl compound emission factors on highways were 1.3–1.9 times lower than those on general roads. The total carbonyl compound emissions from on-road vehicles in Beijing and Zhengzhou in 2019 were estimated to be 3.5 kt and 3.1 kt, with corresponding ozone formation potentials of 24.4 kt and 21.4 kt, respectively. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetone were the most significant contributors to total carbonyl compound emissions, and among them, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were the main contributors to total ozone formation potential. Our results provide updated and supplementary information on on-road vehicle emission factors for carbonyl compounds and can facilitate the improvement of emission inventories and help in the development of control strategies to improve air quality.

7. Continuous co-treatment of mine drainage with municipal wastewater

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 354, March 2024, 120282

Abstract

Acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) are commonly co-occurring waste streams in mining regions. Co-treating AMD at existing wastewater facilities represents an innovative solution for simultaneous AMD reclamation and improved MWW treatment. However, unknowns related to biological processes and continuous treatment performance block full-scale use. The overarching goal of this work was to address questions related to efficacy and performance of continuous processing of AMD in a biological MWW treatment system. Synthetic AMD was co-treated with synthetic MWW in a continuously-operating bench-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR). SBRs treated MWW with two strengths of AMD (91 and 720 mg/L as CaCO3 Acidity) to capture the variations of coal AMD chemistry and strength observed in the field. Each co-treatment phases lasted 40+ days, during which clarified effluent and settled sludge quality was routinely monitored to determine impacts of co-treatment relative to conventional MWW treatment performance. Co-treatment produced effluent that met key standards for secondary treatment including biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) < 5 mg/L, total suspended solids (TSS) < 20 mg/L, and pH ∼7.0. Addition of AMD also improved treatment performance, increasing Phosphate (PO4) removal by >60% and pathogen removal by an order of magnitude. Furthermore, AMD co-treatment did not exhibit any major impacts on the overall diversity of the wastewater microbial community. Co-treatment sludge had slightly higher settleability and a lower bound water content, but notable changes in sludge morphology was observed. This study demonstrates co-treatment allows for continuous mitigation of AMD without adversely impacting MWW treatment performance in conventional biological MWW processes.

8. Construction of a cold island network for the urban heat island effect mitigation

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 169950

Abstract

The urban heat island (UHI) effect seriously challenges sustainable urban development strategies and livability. Numerous studies have explored the UHI problem from the perspective of isolated blue and green patches, ignoring the overall function of cold island networks. This study aims to explore the construction method of cold island network by integrating scattered cold island resources, rationally guiding urban planning and construction, and providing effective ideas and methods for improving the urban thermal environment. Taking the central city of Fuzhou as an example, the identification of the cold island core source (CICS) was optimized by applying relative land surface temperature (LST), morphological spatial pattern analysis, and landscape connectivity analysis. The combined resistance surface was constructed based on a spatial principal component analysis. Subsequently, the cold island network was constructed by applying circuit theory and identifying the key nodes.

The results showed that the central and eastern parts of the study area experienced the most significant UHI effects and there was a tendency for them to cluster. Overall, 48 core sources, 104 corridors, 89 cooling nodes, and 34 heating nodes were identified. The average LST of the CICSs was 28.43 °C, significantly lower than the average LST of the entire study area (31.50 °C), and the 104 cold corridors were classified into three categories according to their importance. Different targeting measures should be adopted for the cooling and heating nodes to maintain the stability of the cold island network and prevent the formation of a heat network. Finally, we suggest a model for urban cold island network construction and explore methods for mitigating issues with UHI to achieve proactive and organized adaptation and mitigation of thermal environmental risks in urban areas, as well as to encourage sustainable urban development.

9. Fluorescence fingerprint as an indicator to identify urban non-point sources in urban river during rainfall period

Environmental Research, Volume 245, 15 March 2024, 118009

Abstract

Nowadays, the urban non-point source (NPS) pollution gradually evolved as the main contributor to urban water contamination since the point source pollution was effectively controlled. It was imperative to perform urban NPS identification in urban river to meet the requirements of precise source governance. In this study, the real-time detection about water quality parameters and fluorescence fingerprints (FFs) was performed for BX River and its outlets during rainfall period. EEM-PARAFAC and component similarity analyses discovered that the pollution encountered by BX River mainly came from road runoff and untreated municipal wastewater (UMWW) overflow.

The C1 (tryptophan-like) and C3 (terrestrial humic-like) components located at Ex/Em = ∼230(280)/340 and ∼275/430 nm were both detected in these two kinds of urban NPS. The C2 components of road runoff and UMWW overflow displayed remarkable differences, which located at Ex/Em = 250/385 and 245/365 nm, respectively, thus could be served as indicators for distinguishing them. During rainfall period, the outflow from rainwater outlets (RWOs) constantly showed similar FF features to road runoff, while the FFs of outflow from combined sewer outlets (CSOs) alternated between those of road runoff and UMWW overflow. The FF features of sections in BX River changed in response to the dynamic variations in FFs of the outlets, which revealed real-time pollution causes of BX River. This work not only realized the identification and differentiation of urban NPS, but also elucidated the dynamic variations of pollution characteristics throughout the entire process of "urban NPS-outlets-urban river”, and demonstrated the feasibility of FF technique in quickly diagnosing the pollution causes of urban river during rainfall period, which provided important guidance for urban NPS governance.

10. Emerging organic compounds as markers of the degradation of groundwater qualitative and quantitative equilibrium in a context of rapid urban expansion

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170068

Abstract

With the neo-metamorphosis of the residential landscape worldwide and sluggish sanitation strategies in urban environments, rudimentary on-site sanitation systems remain commonly used, especially in developing countries, despite the risks of groundwater contamination. The effective management of such water resources relies on assessment of the sensitivity of anthropized aquifers to man-made impact, including groundwater behavioural alteration, in terms of both quality and quantity. Associated with tracking of changes in land use, this study proposes an approach involving emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) as indicators of the alteration of groundwater balance due the exposure of shallow aquifers to the risks of infiltration of untreated wastewater from soak pits. This methodology was applied to the shallow aquifer beneath the urban agglomeration of Grand-Sfax (Tunisia). Combined with an updated follow-up of groundwater piezometric fluctuations in relation with inputs from surface contamination sources, the spatialisation of contamination levels by EOCs provided a clear delineation of the most impacted aquifer zones.

This approach revealed a significant link between the continuous rise in piezometric levels by contributions from untreated inputs and the accumulation of high levels of contamination in groundwater. The understanding of EOC underground pathways allowed the determination of the fates and processes responsible for the diffusion of contamination throughout the studied aquifer. The ability of groundwater to reflect population life style and the use patterns of such organic molecules was also assessed. Besides revealing the legacy of persistent contamination, this approach involving EOCs as tracers with different levels of persistence provided a spatial observation of the aquifer exposure to continuous contamination processes. This approach made it possible to develop a conceptual presentation of aquifer vulnerability to urban pressures and to predict the effects of subsequent expansion of unplanned urbanisation on groundwater quality.

11. Insights into priming effects of dissolved organic matter degradation in urban lakes with different trophic states

Environmental Research, Volume 245, 15 March 2024, 118063

Abstract

Priming effect (PE) is recognized as an important potential mechanism for dissolved organic matter (DOM) degradation in aquatic ecosystems. However, the priming effects (PEs) of various priming substances on the degradation of DOM pools in urban lakes along diverse trophic states remain unknown. To address this knowledge gap, the PEs and drivers of glucose and plant leachate of lake water with three trophic states were investigated. We reveal differences in the bioavailability of DOM in lake water, glucose, and plant leachate. The PE of the same priming substance was significantly higher in highly-eutrophic lake water than in mesotrophic lake.

The priming intensity induced by glucose was significantly higher when compared to plant leachate. Regarding the addition of glucose, humic-like components (C1 and C3) showed slight PE, while the tyrosine-like component C2 showed negative PE. However, the positive PEs were observed on three components after adding plant leachate. The driver of PE by glucose shifted from nutrients to DOM components with increasing trophic levels. The PEs induced by plant leachate were affected by nutrients, chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), water chemistry, and DOM components in lightly/moderately-eutrophic lake water. This study revealed the intensities, directions, and drivers of PEs, providing essential insights into uncovering the DOM biogeochemical process in urban lakes.

12. Insights into the occurrence, spatial distribution, and ecological implications of organophosphate triesters in surface sediments from polluted urban rivers across China

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170108

Abstract

Organophosphate triesters (tri-OPEs) are a kind of widespread contaminants in the world, particularly in China, which is a major producer and user of tri-OPEs. However, tri-OPE pollution in urban river sediments in China remains unclear. In current work, we carried out the first nationwide investigation to comprehensively monitor 10 conventional and five emerging tri-OPEs in sediments of 173 black-odorous urban rivers throughout China. Concentrations of 10 conventional and five emerging tri-OPEs were 3.8–1240 ng/g dw (mean: 253 ng/g dw) and 0.21–1107 ng/g dw (68 ng/g dw), respectively, and significantly differed among the cities sampled but generally decreased from Northeast and East China to Central and West China.

These spatial patterns suggest that tri-OPE pollution was mainly from local sources and was controlled by the industrial and economic development levels in these four areas, as indicated by the significant correlations between tri-OPE concentrations and gross domestic production, gross industrial output, and daily wastewater treatment capacity. Although the tri-OPE composition varied spatially at different sites, which indicated different tri-OPE input patterns, it was commonly dominated by tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (conventional tri-OPEs) and bisphenol A-bis(diphenyl phosphate) and isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (emerging tri-OPEs). A risk assessment indicated that tri-OPEs in most sampling sediments had a low to moderate risk to aquatic organisms.

13. From pollution to solutions: Insights into the sources, transport and management of plastic debris in pristine and urban rivers

Environmental Research, Volume 245, 15 March 2024, 118024

Abstract

River systems are important recipients of environmental plastic pollution and have become key pathways for the transfer of mismanaged waste from the land to the ocean. Understanding the sources and fate of plastic debris, including plastic litter (>5 mm) and microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), entering different riverine systems is essential to mitigate the ongoing environmental plastic pollution crisis. We comprehensively investigated the plastic pollution in the catchments of two rivers in the Yangtze River basin: an urban river, the Suzhou section of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (SZ); and a pristine rural river, the Jingmen section of the Hanjiang River (JM). The abundance of plastic pollutants in SZ was significantly higher than in JM: 0.430 ± 0.450 items/m3 and 0.003 ± 0.003 items/m3 of plastic litter in the water; 23.47 ± 25.53 n/m3 and 2.78 ± 1.55 n/m3 MPs in the water; and 218.82 ± 77.40 items/kg and 5.30 ± 1.99 items/kg of MPs in the sediment, respectively.

Plastic litter and MPs were closely correlated in abundance and polymer composition. Overall, the polymer type, shape and color of MPs were dominant by polypropylene (42.5%), fragment (60.4%) and transparent (40.0%), respectively. Source tracing analysis revealed that packaging, shipping, and wastewater were the primary sources of plastic pollutants. The mantel analysis indicated that socio-economic and geospatial factors play crucial roles in driving the hotspot formation of plastic pollution in river networks. The composition of the MP communities differed significantly between the sediments and the overlying water. The urban riverbed sediments had a more pronounced pollutant ‘sink’ effect compared with the pristine rivers. These findings suggested that the modification of natural streams during urbanization may influence the transport and fate of plastic pollutants in them. Our results offer pivotal insights into effective preventive measures.

14. The fate of nitrogen in the urban area – The case of Zielona Góra, Poland

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 169930

Abstract

The anthropogenic change of the nitrogen (N) cycle is strongly triggered by urban demand (such as food and meat consumption, energy demand and transport). As a consequence of high population density, impacts on human health through water and air pollution also concentrate on a city environment. Thus, an urban perspective on a predominantly rural pollution becomes relevant. Urban N budgets may be considered less intrinsically connected, so that separation of an agri-food chain and an industry-combustion chain is warranted.

Results have been obtained for Zielona Góra, Poland, a city of 140,000 inhabitants characterized by domestic and transport sources and forest-dominated surroundings. In addition to food imports in Zielona Gora amounting to about 30 %, in the suburban area a significant share of N amounting to 41 % is related to fertilizer imports. The remaining imports are in fuel, electronics, textiles, plastics and paper. Most of the agri-food N (45 %) is denitrified in wastewater treatment. N associated with combustion (mainly NOx emissions from vehicles) represents a much smaller share than N entering via the agri-food system, amounting to 22 % of the total N imports. This overall picture is maintained also when specifically addressing the city center, with the exception of mineral fertilizer that plays a much smaller role, with just 7 % of N imports to the city.

15. Predicting high-resolution air quality using machine learning: Integration of large eddy simulation and urban morphology data

Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123371

Abstract

Accurately predicting air pollutants, especially in urban areas with well-defined spatial structures, is crucial. Over the past decade, machine learning techniques have been widely used to forecast urban air quality. However, traditional machine learning approaches have limitations in accuracy and interpretability for predicting pollutants. In this study, we propose a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to predict the spatial distribution of CO concentration in Nanjing urban area at 10 m resolution. Our model incorporates various factors as input, such as building height, topography, emissions, and is trained against the outputs simulated by the parallelized large-eddy simulation model (PALM). The PALM model has 48 different scenarios that varied in emissions, wind speeds, and wind directions.

The results display a strong consistency between the two models. Furthermore, we evaluate the performance of our model using a 10-fold cross-validation and out-of-sample cross-validation approach. This yields a robust correlation (with both R2 > 0.8) and a low RMSE between the CO predicted by the PALM and CNN models, which demonstrates the generalization capability of our CNN model. The CNN can extract crucial features from the resulted weight contribution map. This map indicates that the CO concentration at a location is more influenced by nearby buildings and emissions than distant ones. The interpretable patterns uncovered by our model are related to neighborhood effects, wind speeds, directions, and the impact of orientation on urban CO distribution. The model also shows high prediction accuracy (R > 0.8) when applied to another city. Overall, the integration of our CNN framework with the PALM model enhances the accuracy of air quality predictions, while enabling a fluid dynamic laws interpretation, providing effective tools for air quality management.

16. Association of residential greenness with obstructive sleep apnea among Chinese old adults and the mediation role of PM2.5 and leisure-time physical activity

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 915, 10 March 2024, 170120

Abstract

Few studies have investigated the association of residential greenness with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was to comprehensively examine the association of residential greenness exposure with OSA and explore the mediating effect of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and PM2.5 on the association among Chinese old adults. A prospective cohort study that enrolled 2027 adults aged ≥65 was conducted between 1st July 2015 and 30th September 2019 in Southern China. OSA was ascertained by Berlin Questionnaire. Greenness exposure was measured by contemporaneous and cumulative average normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in the 1000 m radius around each participant's residential address. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards model to assess the impact of greenness exposure on the incidence of OSA after adjusting for confounders.

LTPA and PM2.5 were examined as potential mediators in the aforementioned models. A total of 293, nearly 14.5 %, participants developed OSA within 59,251 person-months of follow-up. When comparing the highest with lowest tertiles, both contemporaneous NDVI (>0.351 vs. ≤0.325: HR = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.13–0.31) and cumulative NDVI (> 0.346 vs. ≤ 0.317: HR = 0.32, 95 % CI = 0.21–0.47) were associated with a reduced risk of OSA after adjusting for confounders. LTPA and PM2.5 significantly mediated the association between greenness and OSA. In conclusion, this study indicated that exposure to higher residential greenness could decrease OSA risk, and this benefit may be achieved by promoting physical activity and decreasing PM2.5 concentration. The findings suggest to formulate targeted interventional strategies by expanding residential greenness to prevent OSA and reduce disease burden.

INDUSTRIAL AREA ENVIRONMENT / MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP

1. Occurrence differences of hexachlorobutadiene and chlorobenzenes in road dust and roadside soil media in an industrial and residential mixed area in Eastern China

Environmental Pollution, Volume 344, 1 March 2024, 123311

Abstract

The road dust and roadside soil can act as both sinks and sources of hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) and chlorobenzenes (CBzs), but comparative research on these two adjacent media is extremely limited. In this study, HCBD and CBzs were simultaneously analyzed in road dust and roadside soil samples from an area containing both industrial factories and residential communities in Eastern China. The road dust there was found to have 2–6 times higher contents of HCBD (mean 1.14 ng/g, maximum 6.44 ng/g) and ∑Cl3-Cl6CBzs (22.8 ng/g, 90.6 ng/g) than those in the roadside soil. The spatial distributions of HCBD and CBzs in road dusts were affected by various types of sources, showing no significant discrepancy among the sites.

On the contrast, HCBD and CBzs contamination in roadside soils occurring near several factories were strongly correlated to their industrial point sources. Risk assessments showed, at current contamination levels in the road dust and roadside soil, HCBD and CBzs are not likely to induce carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic risks to residents in the studied area. Nevertheless, road dust ingestion, as the major exposure pathway of HCBD and CBzs, should be avoided to reduce the exposure risk. These findings based on the contamination differences between two media provide a new perspective and evidence for screening important sources and exposure pathway of HCBD and CBzs, which would be helpful to their source identification and risk control.

2. Measuring the efficiency gains of merging carbon markets – A microsimulation for thermoelectric and industrial sources

Energy, Volume 290, 1 March 2024, 130108

Abstract

Many carbon markets have emerged worldwide, but their poor sector coverage generates economic inefficiency. This is the first study that quantifies the efficiency gains of expanding the sectoral coverage of an Emissions Trading System (ETS) through an optimization model calibrated with microdata. For the above, the behavior of Chilean thermoelectric and industrial sources that participate in two independent ETSs is simulated, and then the effects of integrating both carbon markets are analyzed. The model minimizes the costs of meeting an aggregate emissions target subject to the abatement options for regulated sources. The results show that if a target of 30 % is established, the price of the allowances would be 36.2 USD/tCO2 in the ETS for thermoelectric sources and 17.4 USD/tCO2 in the ETS for industrial sources. The difference in the prices of both ETSs reflects that their merger would lead to efficiency gains. In fact, the price would be 34.4 USD/tCO2 if both types of sources participate in a single carbon market, implying a saving of USD 30.7 million, equivalent to 9.7 % of the total cost of compliance obtained with independent carbon markets. Thus, it is concluded that expanding the sectoral coverage of an ETS promotes efficiency through lower prices.

3. Navigating Sustainability through Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory: ESG Practices and Energy Shift in Bangladesh’s Textile and Readymade Garment Industries

Environmental Pollution, Volume 345, 15 March 2024, 123392

Abstract

As the world's demand for textiles and clothing rapidly increases, this industry's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are becoming a major environmental concern. Bangladesh, a key player in the global textile supply chain and one of the top producers, contributes significantly to these emissions. However, accessible data on activity and GHG emissions, crucial for researchers, the private sector, and policymakers in decision-making, is scarce. To address this gap, this study combines a detailed field survey with expert interviews to establish a comprehensive emission inventory. This inventory aims to identify hotspots and facilitate the adoption of effective mitigation strategies. Focusing on a prominent industrial zone's textile and readymade garments (RMG) industries, the research employs a mix of top-down and bottom-up approaches and follows the IPCC guidelines to develop a GHG emission inventory for 2022.

The study evaluates various emission sources, including scope 1 (onsite fuel combustions), scope 2 (grid electricity usage), and scope 3 (waste and wastewater treatment). In the total emissions (6043.5 Gg CO2eq.), textile and RMG industries contribute 67.8% and 32.2%, respectively, with scope 1 emissions dominating at 85%. Notably, scope 2 emissions exhibit significant uncertainty (−10.4% to +11.9%), largely due to variations in national grid emission factors. This study forecasts GHG emissions until 2030, considering current trends (26 thousand Gg CO2 eq.). It also explores various energy mix scenarios, factoring in the depletion of existing natural gas reserves (ranging from 8 thousand to 33 thousand Gg CO2 eq.). This study delves into the impact of the Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) system on industries' GHG emissions. Besides improving worldwide emission databases and identifying hotspots, this research aims to promote a sustainable transition in both Bangladesh and other developing textile manufacturing nations across the globe.

4. Process simulation of co-HTC of sewage sludge and food waste digestates and supercritical water gasification of aqueous effluent integrated with biogas plants

Energy, Volume 291, 15 March 2024, 130221

Abstract

The objective of this article is to investigate the integration of a digestate treatment with a biogas plant processing sewage sludge and food waste via process simulations: co-HTC of mixed digestates and supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the aqueous effluent. The optimum co-HTC conditions are selected based on the energetic yields, comparing relative equipment sizes besides the hydrochar product. The selected conditions are 200 °C, 30 % solid load, and 1-h residence time for the mixing ratios in scope: energetic yields of 3.58–3.59 MJ/kg reactor inlet. These conditions result in more than 60 % K, P, and N recovery on hydrochar.

SCWG of the aqueous effluent provides complete mineral recovery in the solid form and surplus energy production through syngas while causing some nitrogen loss as N2 gas. Although the co-HTC data is calculated from individual HTC results, the synergetic effect on the energetic yield does not affect the selection of optimum conditions as investigated through co-HTC of sewage sludge and food waste (the origins of the digestates). Consequently, biogas plants can evolve into multi-product biorefineries through the proposed integration. Meanwhile, this study can guide future co-HTC experiments of food waste and sewage sludge digestates and reduce the required runs.

5. Distribution and ecological risk assessment of priority water pollutants in surface river sediments with emphasis on industrially affected areas

Chemosphere, Volume 352, March 2024, 141275

Abstract

Priority water pollutants comprising six plasticizers, 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), 1,4-dioxane, epichlorohydrin, formaldehyde, acrylamide, and cyanides were determined in surface river sediments to assess their distribution patterns and ecological risks. Among these, di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), toluene, TPH, and acrylamide were frequently found in sediments. The industrial sites had higher concentrations of ∑plasticizers (median 628 ng/g dry weight (dw)), ∑VOCs (median 3.35 ng/g dw), acrylamide (median 0.966 ng/g dw), and TPH (median 152 μg/g dw) in sediments than the mixed and non-industrial areas.

The other pollutants did not show the significant differences in levels according to site types because of their relatively low detection frequencies. Volatile and soluble substances as well as hydrophobic pollutants were predominantly detected in surface sediments from industrial areas. Sediment contamination patterns were affected by the size and composition of the industrial zones around the sampling sites. The ecological risks determined using the sediment quality guidelines (DEHP, VOCs, and TPH) and the mean probable effect level quotients (DEHP) were mostly acceptable. However, the two most representative industrial regions (the largest industrial area and the first industrial city) showed risks of concern for DEHP and TPH.

6. Carbon emissions and low-carbon development in Olefin industry

Environmental Research, Volume 244, 1 March 2024, 117841

Abstract

Olefin industry as a vital part in economic development is facing a problem of high CO2 emission. In this work, for the global and China's olefin industry under different development scenario, the carbon emission is predicted after the revealing of carbon footprint in different olefin routes. The results show that the carbon footprint of the natural gas liquids (NGLs)-derived route is highly lower than that of the oil- and coal-derived routes. The carbon emission from the global olefin industry in 2015 is 553 million ton CO2 (MtCO2). In 2030, it will be ranged between 739 and 924 MtCO2 under different scenarios. Under sustainable development scenario, 15% reduction space is existed, whereas 6% growth is observed under the hybrid-development scenario compared to the business-as-usual situation. In the case of China, its carbon emission is 120 MtCO2 in 2015. Its potential carbon emission in 2030 will increase to 264–925 MtCO2, depending on the rest new capacity from low-carbon or high-carbon routes. The large gap implies the significant influence of the development route choice. However, if most new capacity is from the existed planned olefin projects, the carbon emission will be ranged between 390 and 594 MtCO2. Finally, the low-carbon roadmaps as well as polices are proposed for sustainable development of olefin industry.

7. How population aging promotes carbon emission reduction in Chinese cities: The chain mediating role of industrial upgrading and energy conservation

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 354, March 2024, 120434

Abstract

High carbon emissions and population aging are two obstacles to China's development as an emerging economy. It is urgent to scientifically examine the impacts of population aging on carbon emissions to discover new pathways for urban carbon emission reduction. However, existing studies face challenges in terms of focusing on and methodology for accurately capturing the role of industrial production and energy consumption in the environmental effects of population aging. This paper constructs a chain mediation analytical framework and systematically examines the intrinsic linkages between population aging and carbon emissions in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2020 using a two-way fixed effects model.

This paper has three main findings. (1) The positive correlation between urban population aging and carbon emissions development is generally low, with coupling coordination degree values of 0.4233, 0.4458, 0.4220, 0.4715, and 0.4665 for each yearly cross-section. (2) For every 1% increase in the population aging rate, carbon emissions decrease by 0.3478% on average. The carbon reduction effect of population aging is significantly greater in low-emissions cities and high-income cities than in other cities. (3) The industrial upgrading (IU) path, energy conservation (EC) path and chain mediation (CM) path account for 72.43%, 7.23% and 20.34%, respectively, of the indirect effects. If the causal link between IU and EC is not considered, the EC effect will be overestimated by 281.16%. The results of the study suggest that properly coping with population aging and reducing carbon emissions are not completely opposed to each other, a conclusion that passes both endogeneity exclusion and robustness check. This paper advocates replacing the one-size-fits-all approach in carbon emissions management and investing more in policy preferences to support carbon emission reduction in both high-emissions and low-income cities.

8. Effects of coal mining and climate-environment factors on the evolution of a typical Eurasian grassland

Environmental Research, Volume 244, 1 March 2024, 117957

Abstract

Coal mining can significantly impact vegetation evolution, yet the limited information on its patterns and driving factors hampers efforts to mitigate these effects and reclaim abandoned mines. This study aimed to 1) examine vegetation evolution in a semiarid steppe watershed in northeast China; and 2) characterize the driving factors behind this evolution. We analyzed the impact of twelve selected driving factors on fractional vegetation coverage (FVC) from 2000 to 2021 using a dimidiate pixel model, Sen's slope analysis, Mann-Kendall trend test, coefficient of variation analysis, and Geodetector model. At a significance level of α = 0.05, our findings revealed a south-to-north decline pattern in FVC, a significant decrease trend in proximity to coal mines, and a notable increase trend adjacent to river channels. Approximately 37% of the watershed exhibited low FVC, while the overall temporal trend across the watershed was deemed insignificant. Areas surrounding the mines experienced a substantial reduction in FVC due to coal mining activities, while FVC variations across the watershed were linked to precipitation, temperature, and soil type. FVC predictions improved notably when interactions between multiple two-way factors were considered. Each driving factors displayed an optimal range (e.g., precipitation = 63–71 mm) for maximizing FVC. Given the study watershed's status as a national energy base, understanding vegetation responses to coal mining and climate-environment changes is crucial for sustaining fragile terrestrial ecosystems and socioeconomic development. Achieving a long-time balance between coal extraction and ecological protection is essential. The study outcomes hold significant promise for advancing ecological conservation, vegetation restoration, and mitigation of environmental degradation in semiarid regions affected by extensive coal mining and climate fluctuations. These findings contribute to the strategic management of such areas, promoting sustainable practices amidst evolving environmental challenges.

9. Potential source and health risks of black carbon based on MERRA-2 reanalysis data in a typical industrial city of North China Plain

Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 354, March 2024, 120367

Abstract

Black carbon (BC) significantly affects climate, environmental quality, and human health. This study utilised Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, version 2 (MERRA-2), which can compensate for the shortcomings of ground BC monitoring in spatial-temporal distribution to study the pollution characteristics of BC and potential pollution sources in a typical industrial city (Xinxiang) with serious air pollution in northern China. The results showed that average daily ground observation and MERRA-2 concentration of BC of 7.33 μg m−3 and 9.52 μg m−3. The mean BC concentration derived from MERRA-2 reanalysis data was higher than ground measurement due to resolution limitations and pollution from the northern regions. The reliability of the MERRA-2 data was confirmed through correlation analysis. Consideration of the spatial distribution of BC from MERRA-2 and incorporating the potential source contribution function (PSCF), concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT), and emission inventory, other possible source areas and primary sources of BC in Xinxiang were investigated. The results indicated that implementing transportation and residential emission control measures in Henan Province and its surrounding provinces, such as Hebei Province, will effectively decrease the BC level in Xinxiang City. A passively smoked cigarettes model was used to evaluate the risk of BC exposure. The percentage of lung function decrement (PLFD) was the highest in school-age children, while the impact on lung cancer (LC) health risk was comparatively lower. Notably, the BC health risk in Xinxiang was lower than in most cities across Asia.

10. Integrated assessment of the pollution and risk of heavy metals in soils near chemical industry parks along the middle Yangtze River

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 917, 20 March 2024, 170431

Abstract

Industrialization in riparian areas of critical rivers has caused significant environmental and health impacts. Taking eight industrial parks along the middle Yangtze River as examples, this study proposes a multiple-criteria approach to investigate soil heavy metal pollution and associated ecological and health risks posed by industrial activities. Aiming at seven heavy metals, the results show that nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) exhibited the most significant accumulation above background levels. The comprehensive findings from Pearson correlation analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and industrial investigation uncover the primary sources of Cd, arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) to be chemical processing, while Ni and chromium (Cr) are predominantly derived from mechanical and electrical equipment manufacturing. In contrast, Cu exhibits a broad range of origins across various industrial processes. Soil heavy metals can cause serious ecological and carcinogenic health risks, of which Cd and Hg contribute to >70 % of the total ecological risk, and As contributes over 80 % of the total health risk. This study highlights the importance of employing multiple mathematical and statistical models in determining and evaluating environmental hazards, and may aid in planning the environmental remediation engineering and optimizing the industry standards.

11. Transforming industry: Investigating 4.0 technologies for sustainable product evolution in china through a novel fuzzy three-way decision-making process

Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 200, March 2024, 123125

Abstract

This study aims to contribute to expanding international academic interest in enhancing the business, ecological, and social aspects of Industry 4.0. Specifically, the objectives of this study are twofold: (1) to assess the suitability of Industry 4.0 technologies for the triple bottom lines at the product level, and (2) to evaluate these technologies based on product sustainability criteria. Therefore, this study develops a novel Fuzzy Ortho-triplet interval-valued approach for securitizing technologies. To conduct a comprehensive evaluation, this study examines the perspectives of professional technologists holding significant positions as internal and external stakeholders in addressing technological matters within various organizations. The survey results revealed the extent to which nine key technologies could contribute to sustainability at the product level. The results showed that augmented VR has significant potential for advancing social sustainability at the manufacturing level. Similarly, big data analysis exhibits promising results for environmentally and economically sustainable practices at the product level. Policymakers interested in knowing about technologies and how they can be used to make sustainable products would benefit from this kind of assessment, which is essential for sustainable development.

12. Predicting air pollutant emissions of the foundry industry: Based on the electricity big data

Science of The Total Environment, Volume 917, 20 March 2024, 170323

Abstract

Industrial enterprises are one of the largest sources of air pollution. However, the existing means of monitoring air pollutant emissions are narrow in coverage, high in cost, and low in accuracy. To bridge these gaps, this study explored a predicting model for air pollutant emissions from foundry industries based on high-accuracy electricity consumption data and continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS). The model has then been applied to the calculation of air pollutant emissions from foundries without CEMS and the optimization of air pollutant emission temporal allocation factors. The results reveal that electricity consumption and PM emissions during the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics have the same ascending and descending relationship. Furthermore, a cubic polynomial model between electricity consumption and flue gas flow is established based on the whole year data of 2021 (R2 = 0.85). The relative errors between the PM emissions calculated by the model and the emission factor method are small (−17.09–24.12 %), and the results from the two methods revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.93, p < 0.01). In addition, the monthly PM emissions from foundries are mainly concentrated in spring and winter, and the daily emissions on weekends are significantly lower than those on workdays. These results can be useful for environmental regulation and optimization of air pollutant emission inventories of foundry industry.

13. Assessment of environmental concern for enterprise pollution reduction

Economic Analysis and Policy, Volume 81, March 2024, Pages 772-786

Abstract

Environmental regulation produces different effects in different regions. Public concern for the environment in different regions may affect the effectiveness of environmental regulation. Using the pollution emission data of the Chinese Industrial Enterprise Database and the Baidu Index, this paper uses econometric models to evaluate the effect of public environmental concern on enterprise pollution emissions. Results show that public environmental concern reduces enterprise emissions with a coefficient of -3.026. Further research shows that the negative relationship between public environmental concern and pollution emissions is significant for state-owned enterprises, longer-established enterprises, and enterprises in cities with high GDP, in populated areas, and in cities with a higher concentration of secondary industries. Through mechanism analysis, we found that the public can urge enterprises to reduce emissions through centralized treatment of wastewater, harmless treatment of garbage, and increasing green areas, and enterprises should take corresponding measures for different emissions. Finally, we present suggestions for pluralistic co-governance from the perspectives of the government, enterprises, and the media.

14. Opposition Tactics on the Implementation of Advocacy-Driven Institutional Reforms: A Study of Mining Environmental Assesment in Peru

The Extractive Industries and Society, Volume 17, March 2024, 101355

Abstract

Under the concept of sustainability, government attention has become a topical subject of discussion in the environmental management. The text mining techniques in this study are employed to quantify government ecological attention (GEA). Combining with the work reports of Chinese local government in 169 cities and taking the data of Chinese listed companies from 2011 to 2019 as samples, this study adopted text mining method to measure the degree of GEA and empirically analyse its influence on the corporate environmental responsibility (CER). The conclusions suggest that, first, the intensity of GEA is inconsistent between regions, showing significant phase variations. Second, there is an inverted U-shaped relation with GEA and CER, and this conclusion remains plausible after the UTEST test, endogeneity test, and other robustness test. The effects of GEA are more evident in larger firms, heavy polluting industry and Midwest region. Third, urban green innovation and government environmental support significantly weaken the inverted U-shaped relationship. This study highlights the research on government attention in the area of ecological governance, enriches the research content of environmental regulatory theory, and provides a reference for how to promote CER.

15. Life cycle environmental impact assessment of titanium dioxide production in China

Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 105, March 2024, 107412

Abstract

Titanium dioxide (TiO2), a widely used superior and versatile material, has imposed considerable energy and environmental impacts with its increasing demand and production. To guarantee the sustainable development of TiO2, this study assesses and forecasts the multiple environmental impacts of two mainstream TiO2 production technologies using the life cycle assessment (LCA) method. Results show that toxicity is the dominant environmental impact caused by TiO2 production. The chloride route has better environmental performance than the sulphate route except for global warming. Sulfuric acid, electricity, and steam are the key factors contributing to environmental burdens. Production of TiO2 pigment is the key stage to cause environmental impact for the sulphate route, whereas, the production of high‑titanium slag and TiO2 pigment are dominant stages for the chloride route. Nonrenewable-fossil is the largest source of cumulative energy demand (CED) consumption in both routes. Therefore, scenarios on renewable electricity transition under carbon neutral target and enhancing chloride route are simulated, revealing a 43% reduction of environmental impact mitigation potential. Finally, policy implications on the transition to renewable energy, chloride technology, and circular economy for TiO2 production are proposed.

16. Recent advances on the formation, detection, resistance mechanism, and control technology of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm in food industry

Food Research International, Volume 180, March 2024, 114067

Abstract

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a severe and fatal condition. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms nested within a self-secreted extracellular polymeric substance, and they protect L. monocytogenes from environmental stresses. Biofilms, once formed, can lead to the persistence of L. monocytogenes in processing equipment and are therefore considered to be a major concern for the food industry. This paper briefly introduces the recent advancements on biofilm formation characteristics and detection methods, and focuses on analysis of the mechanism of L. monocytogenes biofilm resistance; Moreover, this paper also summarizes and discusses the existing different techniques of L. monocytogenes biofilm control according to the physical, chemical, biological, and combined strategies, to provide a theoretical reference to aid the choice of effective control technology in the food industry.

17. The drivers of carbon intensity and emission reduction strategies in heavy industry: Evidence from nonlinear and spatial perspectives

Ecological Indicators, Volume 160, March 2024, 111764

Abstract

Carbon intensity, a critical indicator for assessing the efficacy of carbon dioxide emissions reduction, plays a crucial role in achieving the "double carbon” target. Exploring the primary drivers influencing carbon intensity in heavy industry is essential for informed decision-making. Different from the traditional linear models, spatial autoregressive threshold panel (SARTP) model can simultaneously capture the possible existed spatial spillover effect of response and nonlinear threshold effects of regressors. Based on 2005–2020 panel data, we use the SARTP model to investigate the drivers of carbon intensity in heavy industry of China. The empirical results reveal that the carbon intensity in heavy industry has a significant positive spatial spillover effect. Notably, the drivers exhibit distinct characteristics across three regimes (regimes I, II, and III) based on different levels of economic development -- low, median, and high. Concretely, (1) 1% increase of carbon intensity in adjacent provinces results in 0.158% increase in the observing province. (2) There are positive impacts of advanced industrial structure, technological progress and environmental regulation under regime I.

However, these impacts turn negative, and their influence strengthens with ascension of economic development level under regimes II and III. (3) The elasticity coefficient of economic development is significantly negative in regimes I and II, while positive in regime III. (4) As economic development levels rise, the positive contributions of energy structure and urbanization to carbon intensity gradually weaken. (5) Energy efficiency has almost the same significant positive marginal contribution to carbon intensity under all three regimes. (6) The openness degree has a noticeable negative effect on carbon intensity under regime II and significantly positive effect under regime III. In light of these findings, local governments are advised to formulate tailored policies and measures according to their economic development levels. Cooperation among regions is emphasized as a crucial strategy to effectively reduce carbon intensity in the heavy industry sector.

CHUYÊN TRANG QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
Tạp chí Môi trường và Đô thị Việt Nam

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