Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 10-2023
Trân trọng giới thiệu tới quý độc giả Công bố quốc tế lĩnh vực môi trường số 10-2023 với những nội dung chính như sau:
Về quản lý môi trường
- Quy hoạch nhiều giai đoạn hệ thống thoát nước đô thị LID-GREI để đáp ứng với những thay đổi sử dụng đất
- Môi trường xây dựng ảnh hưởng đến khả năng phục hồi khí hậu đô thị: Bằng chứng từ các sự kiện nắng nóng khắc nghiệt ở Ma Cao
- Xác định và mô tả tần suất và thời lượng tối đa của nhiệt đô thị bề mặt và đảo mát trên khắp các thành phố toàn cầu
- Bảo vệ dòng chảy môi trường để đạt được an ninh nguồn nước lâu dài
- Quy trình xử lý nước thải khả thi để trung hòa carbon và bền vững năng lượng: Đánh giá
- Bảo vệ dòng chảy môi trường để đạt được an ninh nguồn nước lâu dài
- Diễn biến lịch sử của ô nhiễm hydrocacbon thơm đa vòng ở Chaihe Reservoir từ 1863 đến 2018
- Kim ngạch vận chuyển hàng hóa theo tiêu dùng của thương mại liên tỉnh và phát thải ô nhiễm không khí liên quan ở Trung Quốc từ năm 2007 đến 2012
- Tác động chung của nâng cao chất lượng sản xuất nhiên liệu sinh học và phát thải carbon hướng tới quản lý chuỗi cung ứng thông minh bền vững
Về môi trường đô thị
- Tác động không gian của hạ tầng xanh đô thị đến chất lượng nước đầu nguồn được đánh giá bằng các chỉ tiêu hóa học và cảm quan
- Đô thị hóa làm giảm sự phong phú của các loài và tăng sự phong phú ở vùng khí hậu khô trong khi giảm ở vùng khí hậu ẩm ướt: Một phân tích tổng hợp toàn cầu
- Môi trường xây dựng ảnh hưởng đến khả năng phục hồi khí hậu đô thị: Bằng chứng từ các sự kiện nắng nóng khắc nghiệt ở Ma Cao
- Vật liệu di truyền của SARS-CoV-2 bị loại bỏ trong quá trình xử lý nước thải đô thị và không thể phát hiện được sau khi xử lý nâng cao
- Sự thay đổi theo thời gian thực về mức độ phong phú của vi hạt nhựa và đặc điểm của dòng chảy bề mặt đô thị và tràn cống trong thời tiết ẩm ướt do bị ảnh hưởng bởi các yếu tố sử dụng đất và bão
- Tăng cường loại bỏ nitơ khỏi nước thải đô thị có hàm lượng C/N thấp bằng cách sử dụng sắt hóa trị nano hỗ trợ than sinh học tảo (ABC-nZVI) sử dụng A/A/O-MBR: Thời gian và phục hồi
- Giải quyết vi nhựa nước đô thị bằng hydrogel cellulose vi khuẩn: Tận dụng các mô hình tính toán dự đoán
- Các tương tác dinh dưỡng điều chỉnh các phản ứng của vi sinh vật đối với các điều kiện môi trường và chống lại một phần tiềm năng chuyển hóa nitơ ở các khúc sông đô thị
- Mô hình định giá nước cho khu vực đô thị dựa trên khả năng tiếp cận nước
Về môi trường khu công nghiệp
- Phát triển kỹ thuật bay hơi để cô đặc nước thải axit chì từ nhà máy tái chế pin bằng đế gốm nanocompozit và năng lượng mặt trời/gió
- Đánh giá hiệu suất và đánh giá vòng đời của quy trình đốt điện để loại bỏ mangan khỏi nước thải bằng điện cực titan
- Nghiên cứu thử nghiệm giải hấp phụ nhiệt cảm ứng điện từ để xử lý đất ô nhiễm hydrocacbon dầu mỏ
- Về việc chuyển đổi chế độ sản xuất chất gây ô nhiễm chính và O3 trong thời gian phong tỏa do Covid-19
- Triển vọng mới về các chất ô nhiễm nguy hại trong môi trường nước thải: Sự xuất hiện, đánh giá rủi ro và loại bỏ bằng công nghệ điện cực hóa
- Chuyển đổi mô hình hướng tới tính bền vững trong ngành công nghiệp dầu mỏ thượng nguồn để tăng cường phục hồi - Đánh giá hiện đại
- Sự thất bại của sự tích tụ hợp tác: Từ góc độ phát thải ô nhiễm công nghiệp
- Tìm hiểu mối liên hệ giữa hiệu ứng kích thích công nghiệp và tác động môi trường của thành phố bọt biển: Tập trung vào giai đoạn xây dựng
- Mô hình kinh tế tuần hoàn ba lớp bền vững với kiểm soát được chất thải, khí thải và nước thải từ ngành dệt may và thời trang
Xin trân trọng giới thiệu!
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG
1. Multi-stage planning of LID-GREI urban drainage systems in response to land-use changes
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 1, 10 February 2023, 160214
Long-term planning of urban drainage systems aimed at maintaining the sustainability of urban hydrology remains challenging. In this study, an innovative multi-stage planning framework involving two adaptation pathways for optimizing hybrid low impact development and grey infrastructure (LID-GREI) layouts in opposing chronological orders was explored. The Forward Planning and Backward Planning are adaptation pathways to increase LID in chronological order based on the initial development stage of an urban built-up area and reduce LID in reverse chronological order based on the final development stage, respectively.
Two resilience indicators, which considered potential risk scenarios of extreme storms and pipeline failures, were used to evaluate the performance of optimized layouts when land-use changed and evolved over time. Compared these two pathways, Forward Planning made the optimized layouts more economical and resilient in most risk scenarios when land-use changed, while the layouts optimized by Backward Planning showed higher resilience only in the initial stage. Furthermore, a decentralized scheme in Forward Planning was chosen as the optimal solution when taking costs, reliability, resilience, and land-use changes into an overall consideration.
Nevertheless, this kind of reverse optimization order offers a novel exploration in planning pathways for discovering the alternative optimization schemes. More comprehensive solutions can be provided to decision-makers. The findings will shed a light on the exploration of optimized layouts in terms of spatial configuration and resilience performance in response to land-use changes. This framework can be used to support long-term investment and planning in urban drainage systems for sustainable stormwater management.
2. Built environment influences on urban climate resilience: Evidence from extreme heat events in Macau
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 2, 10 February 2023, 160270
Systematic understanding of climate resilience in the urban context is essential to improve the adaptive capacity in response to extreme weather events. Although the urban built environment affects climate resilience, empirical evidence on the associations between the built environment and urban climate resilience is rare in the literature. In this study, urban heat resilience (HR) is measured as the land surface temperature (LST) difference in a given urban area between normal and extreme heat event, and it further explores the impact of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) urban built environment features on HR. Using spatial regression, we find that solar insolation and water density are the dominant factors in determining land surface temperature. However, they do not appear to influence HR significantly. Results indicate that vegetation and urban porosity are crucial both in reducing LST and improving HR during extreme heat events. This study highlights the importance of 2D and 3D urban built environment features in improving HR to extreme heat events.
3. Identifying and characterizing frequency and maximum durations of surface urban heat and cool island across global cities
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 2, 10 February 2023, 160218
Surface urban heat island (SUHI) has been widely reported from a local to global scale. However, variations and controls of temporal indicators for SUHI and SUCI (surface urban cool island) remain unclear.
This paper firstly reconstructed the seamless daily LST (land surface temperature) based on ATC-SKT (annual temperature cycle-skin temperature) and comprehensively validated for SUHI applications across 1112 global cities. Based on the seamless daily LST, this paper further characterized the spatiotemporal variations of the frequency (SUHIF and SUCIF) and maximum duration (SUHID and SUCID) and investigated the impacts from related factors, inconsideration of the different characteristics of SUHI and SUCI. There are five major findings. (1) The seamless daily LST reconstructed based on ATC-SKT is validated through pixel-based temperature and city-based SUHII accuracy assessments. (2) The selection of the frequency threshold is based on robustness for LST accuracy, approximation to SUHII global average, and mitigation of frequency saturation. (3) The average daytime SUHIF is 214 days/year, with 44 % of cities exhibiting SUHI occurrences for almost every day in summer. The nighttime SUHIF is 175 days/year, with increasing latitudinal variations from equatorial to polar regions. The daytime SUCIF is 41 days/year, with the greatest average frequency of 172 days/year exhibited in arid regions. (4) The average SUHID is 147 days at daytime and 58 days at nighttime, with relatively opposite geographical distributions between day and night. (5) Greater vegetation difference at daytime and greater albedo difference at nighttime result in more occurrences and longer consecutive durations of SUHI, with opposite effects on the temporal indicators of SUCI. Furthermore, the improvements in daily SUHII and impacts from the maximum duration were discussed. This paper aims to identify and highlight the period with significant SUHI and SUCI effects across global cities for further mitigation.
4. Protecting environmental flows to achieve long-term water security
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116914
In this work, we propose a new approach to diagnose if a water allocation scheme is compatible with long-term water security at the catchment scale, and suggest steps to achieve such compatibility. We argue that when the remaining flow of a river after upstream withdrawals is not sufficient to safeguarding ecological river functions, the basin is at extreme risk of water scarcity, which indicates that the water management is failing. To test this, we analysed the water scarcity risks and the safeguarded environmental flows (e-flows) in 277 basins across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions in Chile (17–55°S). For each basin, water scarcity risks were assessed based on water stress indices (WSIs, computed as the ratio of withdrawals to water availability), considering two water-use scenarios: (i), where total withdrawals correspond to the maximum consumptive water allowed by the law, i.e., where only the e-flows protected by law remain in the river, and (ii), where total withdrawals correspond to the actual allocated consumptive water uses within the basins. Further, we evaluated the adequacy of the water management system to protect ecological river functions by contrasting the e-flows protected in Chile with those safeguarded in six other countries.
The water allocation system in Chile incorporated the protection of minimum e-flows in 2005 and established that these do not exceed 20% of the mean annual streamflow, except in some exceptional cases. This upper limit is consistently lower than the e-flows safeguarded in other countries, where 20%–80% of the mean annual streamflow are protected. This turns out in values between 80% and 100% in all basins, well above the threshold associated with over-committed basins under extreme risk of water scarcity (70% typically). When moving from the legally allowed to the actually allocated water use scenario, we found contrasting results: about 70% of the basins show low water scarcity risk (<40%), while an 18% have above 100%, indicating the allocation is going beyond current law limits and even beyond physical limits.
Our results reveal that the link between e-flows, water allocation and water security has not been adequately incorporated in the current law. E-flows stipulated by law are insufficient to fulfil environmental requirements, while placing the basins under extreme risk of water scarcity if the total allowed withdrawals were exerted. To move towards a system that can effectively achieve long-term water security, we recommend: (i) To define tolerable water scarcity risks for basins, considering environmental requirements. (ii) To translate those risks into measurable basin indices to measure water security, such as the WSI. (iii) To set maximum water use limits (or minimum e-flows) within the basins that are compatible to the water security goals. If, under current and projected water availability conditions, the existing withdrawals exceed these limits, water managers should be able to adapt total consumption to the required limits.
5. Realizable wastewater treatment process for carbon neutrality and energy sustainability: A review
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116927
Despite a quick shift of global goals toward carbon-neutral infrastructure, activated sludge based conventional systems inhibit the Green New Deal. Here, a municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) for carbon neutrality and energy sustainability is suggested and discussed based on realizable technical aspects. Organics have been recovered using variously enhanced primary treatment techniques, thereby reducing oxygen demand for the oxidation of organics and maximizing biogas production in biological processes.
Meanwhile, ammonium in organic-separated wastewater is bio-electrochemically oxidized to N2 and reduced to H2 under completely anaerobic conditions, resulting in the minimization of energy requirements and waste sludge production, which are the main problems in activated sludge based conventional processes. The anaerobic digestion process converts concentrated primary sludge to biomethane, and H2 gas recovered from nitrogen upgrades the biomethane quality by reducing carbon dioxide in biogas. Based on these results, MWWTPs can be simplified and improved with high process and energy efficiencies.
6. Plastic wastes in the time of COVID-19: Their environmental hazards and implications for sustainable energy resilience and circular bio-economies
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 858, Part 2, 1 February 2023, 159880
The global scope of pollution from plastic waste is a well-known phenomenon associated with trade, mass consumption, and disposal of plastic products (e.g., personal protective equipment (PPE), viral test kits, and vacuum-packaged food). Recently, the scale of the problem has been exacerbated by increases in indoor livelihood activities during lockdowns imposed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
The present study describes the effects of increased plastic waste on environmental footprint and human health. Further, the technological/regulatory options and life cycle assessment (LCA) approach for sustainable plastic waste management are critically dealt in terms of their implications on energy resilience and circular economy. The abrupt increase in health-care waste during pandemic has been worsening environmental quality to undermine the sustainability in general. In addition, weathered plastic particles from PPE along with microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) can all adsorb chemical and microbial contaminants to pose a risk to ecosystems, biota, occupational safety, and human health. PPE-derived plastic pollution during the pandemic also jeopardizes sustainable development goals, energy resilience, and climate control measures.
However, it is revealed that the pandemic can be regarded as an opportunity for explicit LCA to better address the problems associated with environmental footprints of plastic waste and to focus on sustainable management technologies such as circular bio-economies, biorefineries, and thermal gasification. Future researches in the energy-efficient clean technologies and circular bio-economies (or biorefineries) in concert with a "nexus” framework are expected to help reduce plastic waste into desirable directions.
7. Historical evolution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in Chaihe Reservoir from 1863 to 2018
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116944
Pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spreads and changes worldwide. The pollution evolution in the regional water environment evolves in response to multiple factors, requiring considerable attention. PAH heterogeneity in the sediment core from Chaihe Reservoir was investigated to indicate dynamic changes in PAH pollution levels and sources and propose recommendations for controlling PAHs. Dynamic PAH patterns showed that the overall decline in PAH pollution was in association with local anthropogenic activities, temperature, and precipitation over the period 1863–2018. Nevertheless, coal, oil, and natural gas consumptions still played significant roles in transferring PAHs to the reservoir. Meanwhile, there were dominant local origins, including grass, wood, and coal combustion. The results highlight that the joint action of natural and anthropogenic interventions mitigated PAH pollution in the reservoir. Promoting improved fuels, new energy vehicles, and cleaner energy may further lower PAH pollution.
8. Consumption-driven freight turnover of interprovincial trade and related air pollution emissions in China from 2007 to 2012
Environmental Pollution, Volume 318, 1 February 2023, 120914
Freight transport has become increasingly important regarding CO2 and air pollutant emissions in China but has rarely been assessed using consumption-based methods. Based on the multi-regional input-output tables of China, in this work, we use structural path analysis (SPA) to link interprovincial trade-related freight turnover to responsible sectors of final consumption. We find that from 2007 to 2012, the interprovincial trade turnover in China increased by 39% and reached 3.87 × 1012 ton-km in 2012, associated with emissions of approximately 370 Mt CO2, 6.1 Mt CO and 2.5 Mt NOx. We also find that each 10 thousand CNY final consumption on interprovincial traded goods in China may drive 2000 ton-km of freight turnover and generate 200 kg CO2 emissions. This environmental burden will decrease by a factor of five if only locally produced goods are consumed. Final consumption in equipment, construction, service and food caused the most significant freight turnover; they drive a large quantity of low-value-added but heavy-weight semifinished products, such as mining and metal products, to be shipped across the provinces at the very upstream of the supply chain. Policymakers should aim to optimize China's industrial geographical layout and trade structure to facilitate deep CO2 reductions associated with the freight transport system.
9. Joint effects of production quality improvement of biofuel and carbon emissions towards a smart sustainable supply chain management
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 386, 1 February 2023, 135629
Controlling carbon emissions and improving biofuel generation are crucial for every manufacturer. The responsible managers’ primary concern is to increase profit and form a sustainable supply chain. Further, supply chain managers select appropriate combinations when dealing with minimizing waste, quality improvement of biofuel, and multi-mode transportation. The study’s objective is to show the combined effects of improved quality of biofuel and controlling carbon emissions in a smart three-echelon sustainable supply chain management. In this model, one-manufacturer, one-supplier, and multi-retailers are contemplated. When the supplier makes impure biofuel, it transports to the manufacturer for pure biofuel. A random production rate is applied through a smart production system; still, impure biofuel is produced. For that reason, a two-stage inspection policy with a variable manufacturing rate is considered to make the production process flexible such that the quantity of impure biofuel is reduced and impure biofuel treated as a waste. After production, the manufacturer transports pure biofuel to multi-retailers. A variable selling price-dependent demand is introduced for the maximization of profit.
The carbon emissions are considered, which are associated with different operational activities of inventory such as preparation of setup of suppliers, manufacturers, transportation of products, and holding stock at manufacturers and the retailer’s end. The retailers keep up the actual order as on demand to the manufacturer to save from the excess holding costs. The model has been solved with a specific algebraic procedure to obtain the global optimum solution. Four numerical experiments are conducted to ensure the model’s effectiveness and profit maximization. The results indicate that these three echelons’ smart production significantly minimized impure biofuel and carbon emissions, positively impacting the environment and the finance, attached to the inventory. The proposed integrated system’s validity is illustrated with sensitivity analysis, numerical examples, and graphical representation. In addition, various worthy managerial insights based on the study are provided.
10. Technically efficient, economic and environmentally benign hybrid decentralized energy solution for an Indian village: Multi criteria decision making approach
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 388, 15 February 2023, 135717
Decentralized hybrid energy system is considered as one of the potential sustainable solutions for ongoing global energy transition. Optimization of decentralized hybrid energy systems for better sustainability is a complex problem. It involves multiple issues related to technical, economic and environmental performance. Techno-economic and environmental performance analyses are carried out for a decentralized integrated energy system. As multiple criteria may not simultaneously be the best for a specific combination, a multi criteria decision making approach may be adopted to decide a feasible optimum solution.
A detailed methodology integrating techno-economic optimization, environmental impact assessment using Life cycle assessment and multi criteria decision making approach is demonstrated for a remote Indian village. The proposed methodology aims to bridge the gaps of simultaneously obtaining technically efficient, economic and environmentally benign sustainable energy solutions.
The results show that though a combination of photovoltaic-wind-diesel generator-Lithium-ion yields the most economical solution for the village, a combination of photovoltaic-diesel generator-Lithium-ion causes the least environmental impacts.
The second combination is technically efficient too. The multi criteria decision making approach recommends a combination of photovoltaic-diesel generator-Lithium-ion as the feasible optimum solution with a Cost of electricity $0.067/kWh, excess electricity 14.5%, an environmental impact lesser than 40.5–82%. The sensitivity of the solution is also evaluated using the ELECTRE method. Though the final solution may be site specific for best utilization of available local resources, this methodology is a generic one.
11. A comprehensive review on pyrolysis from the circular economy point of view and its environmental and social effects
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 388, 15 February 2023, 136021
The rising volume of waste created worldwide due to industrialization and commercial activity necessitates a method of waste management that is both effective and efficient. However, waste management is linked to unsustainable patterns in a linear economic system. On the contrary, a circular economy (CE) is widely perceived to solve various issues, including resource scarcity and long-term economic benefits. Utilizing pyrolysis to convert waste to energy and valuable compounds is a potential method for reducing waste while producing valuable end products.
The current article offers a thorough analysis of pyrolysis from a circular economy point of view. First, the nature of pyrolysis is briefly described to understand subsequent concepts better. In the following, the pyrolysis of three types of waste, including tire, plastic, and biomass, is deeply investigated from the CE aspect. Then, the social and environmental impacts of pyrolysis from the life cycle assessment (LCA) perspective in developed and developing countries are scrutinized. In the end, ongoing challenges and suggestions for future research are also discussed. Pyrolysis products have not yet been standardized for trade in the market. However, pyrolysis might be able to close the loop of energy and materials. Also, LCA results revealed that pyrolysis has acceptable environmental impacts and a low global warming potential (GWP).
12. Eco-friendly recovery of base and precious metals from waste printed circuit boards by step-wise glycine leaching: Process optimization, kinetics modeling, and comparative life cycle assessment
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 389, 20 February 2023, 136016
Glycine as a green alternative to cyanide for gold leaching is a promising reagent to put a curb on the environmental footprints of conventional hydrometallurgical processes.
This work was designed to investigate the step-wise glycine leaching of the base and precious metals from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) as one of the most dominant and problematic e-wastes in today's world. Using response surface methodology, selective copper extraction reached 99.96% recovery at the optimum condition of 0.5 M glycine, 1% v/v H2O2, 20 g/l pulp density, and ambient temperature.
Copper sulfide was then recovered from the leach solution via precipitation by sodium hydrosulfide. Gold leaching in the glycine + permanganate system was thoroughly studied with an emphasis on the process's kinetics mechanisms. It was revealed that gold leaching in the glycine and permanganate system starts with a rapid phase followed by a slower chemically controlled phase. At the optimum condition of 4 g/l glycine, 2 g/l potassium permanganate, and room temperature, 96.17% of the gold was selectively extracted.
By using 3 g/L activated carbon, about 100% of the gold was separated from the leach solution. Comparative life cycle assessment revealed that in the proposed process, the main contributor to most of the environmental impact categories is glycine. Replacing the first step of glycine copper leaching with nitric acid can substantially reduce the environmental footprints of the process to a lower level than many other proposed recycling routes.
13. Embracement of industry 4.0 and sustainable supply chain practices under the shadow of practice-based view theory: Ensuring environmental sustainability in corporate sector
Journal of Cleaner Production, Available online 24 February 2023, 136609
Industry 4.0, also known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution, is bringing forth fast development. This revolution is reforming how companies work and relics optimistic regarding the opportunities Industry 4.0 may bring for sustainability. In recent years, several businesses have used sustainable supply chain practices (SSCPs) to make their supply networks less harmful to society and the environment.
The goal is to minimize adverse environmental effects, such as those caused by excessive energy, water, and waste use. Sustainable business practices are becoming more and more crucial for growing firms as well as for resolving global issues. This research analyzes how Industry 4.0 affects the textile industry's environmental, social, and economic performance through SSCPs. Smart-PLS is utilized to examine the hypotheses using structural equation modeling, and a total of 639 valid survey responses were collected and processed for this study.
The results show that SSCPs benefit Industry 4.0's environmental, social, and economic performance and have a positive impact. Industry 4.0 research incorporating SSCPs and the triple bottom line is a relatively recent concept.; further research may focus on other elements that could make SSCPs easier to execute. In this study, we employed the Practice-based view (PBV) theory for the sustainable supply chain (SSC) model; however, future researchers may use the Resource-based perspective or ecological modernization theory. The implications of Industry 4.0 on the textile industry's environmental, social, and economic performance through SSCPs have been the subject of a few research.
14. Quantity or quality: Environmental legislation and corporate green innovations
Ecological Economics, Volume 204, Part B, February 2023, 107684
Firms investing in environmental issues often suffer from increased operating costs and reduced profits. Therefore, rigorous environmental legislation is required to motivate firms to conduct more green innovations. This paper takes the promulgation of China's New Environmental Protection Law as an ideal quasi-natural experiment to investigate the effect of rigorous environmental legislation on corporate green innovations. By reconsolidating the "compensation effect” and the "crowding-out effect”, we find that China's New Environmental Protection Law promotes the quantity of corporate green innovations, but inhibits the quality of green innovations.
The potential mechanisms regarding green innovation quantity and quality are strikingly different. China's New Environmental Protection Law promotes green innovation quantity mainly through alleviating government favoritisms and increasing the risk of environmental litigations. However, since high-quality innovations require higher investment costs and greater tolerance for failure, China's New Environmental Protection Law also tightens financing constraints and exacerbates managerial myopia, which crowds out high-quality green innovations. Moreover, China's New Environmental Protection Law causes short-term corporate performance losses, but it indeed promotes environmental performances. Our results are crucial to comprehensively understand the effectiveness of environmental legislation and provide policy inspirations for the government concerning the environment.
15. Green innovation output in the supply chain network with environmental information disclosure: An empirical analysis of Chinese listed firms
International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 256, February 2023, 108745
Supply chain networks affect the ability of firms to obtain resources, and to meet the requirements of sustainable development, firms further seek green innovation from supply chain networks. Based on this context, we construct a supply chain network system, explore the influence of supply chain network power and network cohesion on corporate green innovation output, and discuss the potential moderating effect of corporate environmental information disclosure. We use an empirical sample comprising 1048 A-share listed firms in China from 2012 to 2019 to construct a supply chain network for focal firms. We also develop the focal firms' environmental information disclosure index via the environmental information revealed in the firms' annual and corporate social responsibility reports. Negative binomial model regression is adopted to analyse how supply chain network structures affect green innovation output.
Our results show that both the network power and cohesion of the supply chain network positively influence corporate green innovation output, but the interaction of network power and cohesion negatively affects corporate green innovation, which suggests that excessive green knowledge and information can overload focal firms and reduce the efficiency of knowledge and information search. Furthermore, the empirical results indicate that environmental information disclosure positively moderates the relationship between network power and green innovation output as well as that between network cohesion and green innovation output. By analysing the factors influencing corporate green innovation output from a network perspective, we provide new guidance for sustainable corporate development.
MÔI TRƯỜNG ĐÔ THỊ
1. Spatial effects of urban green infrastructure on instream water quality assessed by chemical and sensory indicators
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 858, Part 3, 1 February 2023, 160088
Urban green infrastructure has been simulated effectively and economically to reduce volume and pollutants of stormwater runoffs but its spatial effects remain unclear. A snap sampling campaign was carried out for surface water quality in the downtown waterway network of a pilot sponge city (Suzhou) in China, dividing into 7 subwatersheds according to the digital elevation map. In total, 144 sampling points were investigated and measured for chemical quality of surface water while 68 out of the sampling points had a sensory evaluation questionnaire interview for water quality with 321 respondents, in whom the native residents scored a significant spatiality of water quality.
The downtown waterway network had phosphorus-limited eutrophic surface water with total nitrogen worse than Class V of the national guidelines. Chemical and sensory evaluation indexes of surface water quality had significant spatial consistency (p < 0.001). All types of green spaces (%) in subwatershed, especially along the urban waterway network (waterfront) and roadside, and in the 100 m riparian buffer zone, significantly influenced nutrient loads in surface water. Findings of the present study suggest that the 100 m riparian buffer zone would be priority areas and the waterfront and roadside should be the highly efficient spots for planning strategy on urban green infrastructure implementation to reduce nutrient loads in surface water and to improve urban landscape aesthetics.
2. Urbanization decreases species richness, and increases abundance in dry climates whereas decreases in wet climates: A global meta-analysis
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 1, 10 February 2023, 160145
Soil invertebrates have an essential role in decomposition, nutrient turnover and soil structure formation, all of which are strongly threatened by urbanization. Sealing, compaction by trampling and pollution destroy and degrade city soils and potentially damage soil-living invertebrates. The existing literature on how urbanization affects soil invertebrates is inconsistent, presenting both negative and positive effects. Therefore, here we aimed to synthesize the effects of urbanization on soil invertebrates considering their taxonomic (Acari, Annelida, Carabidae, Collembola, Gastropoda, Isopoda, Myriapoda, Nematoda) and functional (soil living vs. soil-related; mobility) identities, as well as to examine how the overall effect is modulated by climatic conditions (total annual precipitation, annual mean ambient temperature), urban heat island effect (based on ambient temperature differences between urban and rural areas) and city population. In a systematic review using hierarchical and categorical meta-analyses, we extracted 158 effect sizes from 75 studies on abundance and 125 effect sizes from 84 studies on species richness. Invertebrate abundance showed an increase (r = 0.085), whereas species richness significantly decreased with increasing urbanization (r = −0.168). The reason behind this could be that a few generalist species can adapt well to the urban environment and achieve strongly elevated densities. The species richness of annelids (r = −0.301), springtails (r = −0.579), and snails (r = −0.233) decreased with advancing urbanization, most probably because these animals are sensitive to soil compaction and pollution, both of which are common consequences of urbanization. The temperature did not modify the effects of urbanization, but precipitation modified the effects on abundance (r = −0.457). Abundance increased with advancing urbanization in drier climates, probably because irrigation increased soil moisture, whereas it decreased in wet climates, as urban areas were drier than their surroundings. Making future cities more climate-neutral could better sustain soil biodiversity.
3. Built environment influences on urban climate resilience: Evidence from extreme heat events in Macau
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 2, 10 February 2023, 160270
Systematic understanding of climate resilience in the urban context is essential to improve the adaptive capacity in response to extreme weather events. Although the urban built environment affects climate resilience, empirical evidence on the associations between the built environment and urban climate resilience is rare in the literature. In this study, urban heat resilience (HR) is measured as the land surface temperature (LST) difference in a given urban area between normal and extreme heat event, and it further explores the impact of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) urban built environment features on HR. Using spatial regression, we find that solar insolation and water density are the dominant factors in determining land surface temperature. However, they do not appear to influence HR significantly. Results indicate that vegetation and urban porosity are crucial both in reducing LST and improving HR during extreme heat events. This study highlights the importance of 2D and
4. SARS-CoV-2 genetic material is removed during municipal wastewater treatment and is undetectable after advanced treatment
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 1, 10 February 2023, 159575
The aim of this study was to establish whether SARS-CoV-2 genetic material is detectable after municipal wastewater treatment and to verify its expected removal from purified water that is reclaimed for potable reuse. Viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 (N1 and N2 genes) were monitored in raw influent wastewater (sewage) entering a water reclamation facility and in subsequent advanced treatment. Despite the large viral RNA load in raw sewage during peak COVID-19 outbreaks, substantial amounts of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material were removed during the conventional wastewater treatment process. Further, SARS-CoV-2 genetic material was undetectable after advanced purification. This confirms that potable reuse is resilient against high viral loads which are expected results given the advanced degree of wastewater and water treatment. Findings from this study may enhance public perception of the safety of potable water reuse; however, it should also be noted that studies to date worldwide indicate no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 transmission via water, and the CDC does not consider fecal waste or wastewaters as a source of exposure.
5. Real-time variabilities in microplastic abundance and characteristics of urban surface runoff and sewer overflow in wet weather as impacted by land use and storm factors
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 859, Part 2, 10 February 2023, 160148
Urban surface runoff (USR) and drainage system overflows during wet weather (WWF) play a key role in shaping water pollution. Particularly, the impact of large amounts of microplastic pollution on urban water bodies is unclear. We conducted an in-field investigation in six central urban drainage systems along Suzhou Creek in the Shanghai megacity of China and identified the impacts of storm factors and land use on the real-time dynamic changes in microplastic abundance and characteristics in USR and WWF. Microplastic abundances ranged from 228.3 ± 105.4–4969.51 ± 348.8, 309.3 ± 144.3–5195.8 ± 425.5, and 130.0 ± 30.0–8500.0 ± 1241.0 particles/L in the traffic and residential catchment USR, and the WWF, respectively.
Under similar storm factor conditions, we observed correlations between environmental factors and microplastic abundance, especially the polymer type, verifying the significant role of land use. The microplastic abundance were 90.2 particles/L higher in the traffic catchment USR than in the residential catchment USR. Notably, we found unique microplastic polymers comprising ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer and thermoplastic elastomers in the residential and traffic catchment USR, respectively. However, land use had a minimum impact on the size and shape of microplastics: small-sized and film microplastics dominated in both USR types. We found statistical evidence of the widespread correlations between microplastic abundance and storm factors (accumulated storm depth and WWF flow) in both USR and WWF. The first flush phenomenon of microplastic dynamics was found in both USR and WWF. Microplastic characteristics also changed dynamically with storm time. With heavy storm factors, polypropylene and small-sized (<1 mm) microplastics in USR events increased and then decreased. This was also true for WWF events in granular and polyethylene terephthalate microplastics. Our results can facilitate the targeted mitigation of emerging pollutants to enhance stormwater management strategies and prevent future contamination.
6. Enhanced nitrogen removal from low C/N municipal wastewater employing algal biochar supported nano zero-valent iron (ABC-nZVI) using A/A/O-MBR: Duration and rehabilitation
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 860, 20 February 2023, 160396
To bridge the organic-dependent barrier on nitrogen from low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) municipal wastewater, employing algal biochar supported nano zero-valent iron (ABC-nZVI) was investigated using A/A/O-MBR. Firstly, it can be seen that adequate carbon source is indispensable for the removal, since total nitrogen (TN) removal reached 77.89 % with the influent C/N of 7.8. Secondly, conducted in batch experiments with different doses of ABC-nZVI with/without active sludge, removal efficiency of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and the effective time achieved 84.94 % and 24 h with an ABC-nZVI dose of 300 mg/L, respectively.
Thirdly, it was found that the duration of high-efficiency denitrification reached 9 h with the addition of 250 mg/L of ABC-nZVI to the anoxic tank of A/A/O-MBR, and the effluent ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) also meet the national discharge standard. Besides, biodiversity of both anoxic and aerobic sludge was apparently promoted with the addition of ABC-nZVI, while the lab-scale A/A/O-MBR could also be fully rehabilitated within 12 h. Finally, predicted through PICRUSt2, relevant abundance of functional genes involved in nitrogen metabolism could be enriched by nZVI addition. As an alternative supporting electron donor and mediator, ABC-nZVI can also be participated in the enhanced nitrogen removal in A/A/O-MBR at low C/N.
7. Solving urban water microplastics with bacterial cellulose hydrogels: Leveraging predictive computational models
Volume 314, February 2023, 137719
The prevalence of microplastics (MPs) in both urban and aquatic ecosystems is concerning, with wastewater treatment plants being considered one of the major sources of the issue. As the focus on developing sustainable solutions increases, unused remnants from bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were ground to form BC hydrogels as potential bioflocculants of MPs. The influence of operational parameters such as BC:MPs ratio, hydrogel grinding, immersion and mixing time, temperature, pH, ionic strength, and metal cations on MPs flocculation and dispersion were evaluated. A response surface methodology based on experimental data sets was computed to understand how these parameters influence the flocculation process. Further, both the BC hydrogel and the hetero-aggregation of MPs were characterised by UV–Vis, ATR-FTIR, IGC, water uptake assays, fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy. These highlights that the BC hydrogel would be fully effective at hetero-aggregating MPs in naturally-occurring concentrations, thereby not constituting a limiting performance factor for MPs' optimal flocculation and aggregation. Even considering exceptionally high concentrations of MPs (2 g/L) that far exceed naturally-occurring concentrations, the BC hydrogel was shown to have elevated MPs flocculation activity (reaching 88.6%: 1.77 g/L).
The computation of bioflocculation activity showed high reliability in predicting flocculation performance, unveiling that the BC:MPs ratio and grinding times were the most critical variables modulating flocculation rates. Also, short exposure times (5 min) were sufficient to drive robust particle aggregation. The microporous nature of the hydrogel revealed by electron microscopy is the likely driver of strong MPs bioflocculant activity, far outperforming dispersive commercial bioflocculants like xanthan gum and alginate. This pilot study provides convincing evidence that even BC remainings can be used to produce highly potent and circular bioflocculators of MPs, with prospective application in the wastewater treatment industry.
8. Trophic interactions regulate microbial responses to environmental conditions and partially counteract nitrogen transformation potential in urban river bends
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 327, 1 February 2023, 116889
River bends are distinguished by high biodiversity and elevated rates of biogeochemical activities due to complex hydromorphological processes that form diverse geomorphic units, making it challenging to elucidate the impact of trophic interactions on community assembly and biogeochemical processes. Here, we clarify the effect of trophic interactions in determining the assembly of multi-trophic microbial communities and the impact on nitrogen transformation potential by distinguishing the direct and cascading effects of environmental conditions based on 32 samples collected from a typical urban river bends. It was found that both bacterial and micro-eukaryotic communities were determined by homogeneous selection (indicated by β-nearest taxon index, accounted for 85% and 48.3%, respectively), whereas the dominant environmental factors were different, being sediment particle size (P < 0.05) and nitrogen (P < 0.05), respectively. Both the microbial co-occurrence network and the significant association (P < 0.05) between β-nearest taxon index and trophic transfer efficiency changes showed that the trophic interactions strongly shaped microbial communities in the urban river bends.
The path modeling suggested that environmental conditions resulted in an increase in abundance of multi-trophic microbial communities via direct effects (mean standardized effects = 0.21), but reductions in abundance of bacteria via cascading effects, i.e., trophic interaction (mean standardized effects = −0.1). When considering direct and cascading effects together, environmental conditions in urban river bends were found to enhance the abundance of microbial communities, with decreasing magnitude at the higher trophic level. Analogously, the path modeling also indicated the nitrogen transformation potential enhanced by environmental conditions via direct effects, but partly counteracted by trophic interactions via cascading effects. The obtained results could provide a theoretical basis for the regulation and restoration of urban rivers.
9. A water pricing model for urban areas based on water accessibility Journal of Environmental Management
Volume 327, 1 February 2023, 116880, Journal of Environmental Management
Water resource, with properties of scarcity, is one of the vital resource endowments. Like land resources, the prices of these resource endowments should be correlated to their locations to follow fair and reasonable principles. The current water price systems are mainly policy-oriented fixed regimes. And the water use was charged according to the regional-average situation with scarce consideration of the fine-scale geographical water accessibility. With a combination of the water accessibility and the current water pricing regime, this paper first proposed a novel water pricing model, the Water Price at Grid-scale (WPG) model, to dynamically allocate water prices to fine grids for urban residents. The WPG model was examined in the case study of the Han River Basin in the Hubei province of China.
The specific results were: (1) the Pgrid of Tier I is between 0.66 and 3.94 yuan/m³, the Pgrid of Tier II is between 0.57 and 5.44 yuan/m³, and the Pgrid of Tier III is between 0.47 and 6.94 yuan/m³ in the study area. (2) the grids with more water acquisition generally have lower water prices than others and vice versa. (3) the average water prices in tiers obtained by the WPG model are generally higher than that derived from the current water pricing system. The results proved that the proposed WPG model spatially allocates the three-tier water prices into grids of urban areas.
The WPG framework can be adopted in any society by involving its water price regimes and adjusting the scale of grids and the pricing year. This study provided a new viewpoint of domestic water pricing involving fine-scale water accessibility. The WPG model has great potential to ease water shortage pressure in water-limited societies and can be utilized and loaded into the current smart-city network for efficient and fine-scale water resource management.
10. Variations of the urban PM2.5 chemical components and corresponding light extinction for three heating seasons in the Guanzhong Plain, China
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 327, 1 February 2023, 116821
In order to investigate the variations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) chemical components responding to the pollution control strategy and their effect on light extinction (bext) in the Guanzhong Plain (GZP), the comparisons of urban atmospheric chemical components during the heating seasons were extensively conducted for three years. The average concentration of PM2.5 decreased significantly from 117.9 ± 57.3 μg m−3 in the heating season 1 (HS1) to 53.5 ± 31.3 μg m−3 in the heating season 3 (HS3), which implied that the effective strategies were implemented in recent years.
The greatest contribution to PM2.5 (∼30%) was from Organic matter (OM). The heightened contributions of the secondary inorganic ions (SNA, including NO3−, SO42−, and NH4+) to PM2.5 were observed with the values of 34% (HS1), 41% (HS2), and 42% (HS3), respectively. The increased percentages of NO3− contributions indicated that the emission of NOx should be received special attention in the GZP. The comparison of PM2.5 chemical compositions and implications across major regions of China and the globe were investigated.
NH4NO3 was the most important contributor to bext in three heating seasons. The average bext was decreased from 694.3 ± 399.1 Mm−1 (HS1) to 359.3 ± 202.3 Mm−1 (HS3). PM2.5 had a threshold concentration of 75 μg m−3, 64 μg m−3, and 57 μg m−3 corresponding to the visual range (VR) < 10 km in HS1, HS2, and HS3, respectively. The enhanced impacts of the oxidant on PM2.5 and O3 were observed based on the long-term variations in PM2.5 and OX (Oxidant, the sum of O3 and NO2 mixing ratios) over the five heating seasons and PM2.5 and O3 over six summers from 2016 to 2021. The importance of coordinated control of PM2.5 and O3 was also investigated in the GZP.
11. The spatial distribution of microplastics in topsoils of an urban environment - Coimbra city case-study
Environmental Research, Volume 218, 1 February 2023, 114961
Due to their seemingly ubiquitous nature and links to environmental and human health problems, microplastics are quickly becoming a major concern worldwide. Artificial environments, such as those found in urban environments, represent some of the main sources of microplastic. However, very few studies have focused on the occurrence of microplastics in urban soils. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the microplastic contamination in urban soils from artificial and natural land uses throughout Coimbra city, Portugal.
Sixty-seven spaces and ten land use areas were evaluated. The artificial land use areas were dumps, landfills, parking lots, industries and construction areas, and the natural land use areas were forests, urban parks, moors (wetlands), pastures and urban agricultural areas. Microplastic extraction was done by density separation. Quantification and size measurements of microplastics was carried out using a microscope. Polymer types were identified by μ-FTIR for 25% of the samples. The microplastic content ranged from 5 × 103 to 571 × 103 particles·kg−1, with a mean of 106 × 103 particle·kg−1.
The green park was the land use with the highest concentration of microplastics (158 × 103 particle·kg−1) and the forest was the one with the lowest concentration (55 × 103 particle·kg−1). The landfill (150 × 103 particle·kg−1), industry (127 × 103 particle·kg−1) and dump (126 × 103 particle·kg−1) were the artificial spaces with the highest levels of microplastics. The main polymers detected were polypropylene and polyethylene, followed by polyvinyl chloride and rubber, and the main sizes measured between 50 and 250 μm.
Our results indicate that natural spaces can contain higher amounts of microplastics as compared to artificial spaces in the urban environment. This suggests that microplastics are easily transported through the urban landscape and that urban green spaces can retain microplastics in their soils. Land use planning may present an opportunity to better control the levels of microplastics in urban environments.
12. Zeolite NaP1 synthesized from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue
Environmental Research, Volume 218, 1 February 2023, 114873
The disposal of hazardous municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash is a challenge nowadays. Recently, the re-utilization of MSWI fly ash by converting it to useful zeolite-containing materials has attracted attention. However, the zeolitic products fabricated from MSWI fly ash are usually of low quality and rarely reported to be applied for photocatalysis. In this study, valuable zeolites (e.g., NaP1) are synthesized from MSWI fly ash via a modified microwave-assisted hydrothermal method.
The key parameters for the hydrothermal method including temperature, duration, the amount of additive, and water volume, are investigated and optimized. Specifically, increasing the hydrothermal temperature can promote the synthesis of zeolitic materials; a relatively long hydrothermal duration is essential to accomplish the assembly of zeolites; the addition of Na2SiO3 can increase the precursor for the fabrication of zeolites; the water volume makes little influence on the crystal style of products. Eventually, the hydrothermal condition of 180 °C, 1 h, 0.5 g Na2SiO3, and 10 mL water is suggested based on the energy consumption and the quality of zeolites. The product containing zeolite NaP1 from such a condition is further applied to degrade methylene blue by photocatalysis. The removal rate has reached 96% within 12 h, which dramatically surpasses that of the raw fly ash (38%). Such excellent photocatalytic performance is attributed to the 10-fold increased surface area (24.864 m2 g−1) and active metal elements embedding in the zeolite structures.
13. The short term adaptation of the autonomic nervous systems (ANS) by type of urban environment and ethnicity
Environmental Research, Volume 218, 1 February 2023, 114929
Previous studies examined the effects of urban environments on the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS). These studies measured the effects of environments on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) averaging different time intervals to one value. Yet, the dynamics of change, reflecting the functions and their derivatives that describe the adaptation to the new environments remain unknown. In addition, ethnic differences in the ANS adaptation were not investigated.
Method: Forty-eight Arab and 24 Jewish women ages 20–35 years, all healthy, non-smokers were recruited by a snowball sample. Both groups were of a similar socioeconomic status and BMI distributions. Using a portable monitor, the HRV response was continuously analyzed for 35 min of sedentary sitting in each of the three environments: a park, a city center and a residential area. LF/HF polynomial function was adapted to describe the dynamic change in each environment for each ethnic group.
Green area exposure was associated with 90% immediate change while in built-up areas, the change in HRV is about 40% adaptive (changing gradually). The adaptive process of HRV may stabilize after 15 min in the city center yet not even after 35 min in the residential environment. The total change (immediate + adaptive) reached 24% in city centers and 10% in residential areas. Changes in HRV rates in the park and the city center environments were higher among Arab women as compared to Jewish women but similar between the two groups in the residential area. The distributions of LF/HF in each time cohort were normal, meaning that shifting the focus to analyze functions of change in HRV, opens the possibility to employ analytic methods that assume the normal distribution.
Changing the focus from average levels of HRV to functions of change and their derivatives brings new insight into the understanding of the ANS response to environmental challenges. ANS short term adaptation to different environments is gradual and spans differently both in magnitude of response and latencies between different environments. Importantly, in green areas, the response is immediate unlike the adaptation to urban environments that is significantly more gradual. The ethnic differences in ANS adaptation is also noteworthy. In addition, adaptation proceeesses are normaly distributed in each time cohort suggesting a possible novel ANS index.
14. Decoding the PLFA profiling of microbial community structure in soils contaminated with municipal solid wastes
Environmental Research, Volume 219, 15 February 2023, 114993
This study aimed to assess the influence of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal on soil microbial communities. Soil samples from 20 different locations of an MSW dumping site contaminated with toxic heavy metals (HMs) and a native forest (as control) were collected for phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling to predict microbial community responses towards unsegregated disposal of MSW. PLFA biomarkers specific to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, eukaryotes, actinomycetes, anaerobes, and microbial stress markers-fungi: bacteria (F/B) ratio, Gram-positive/Gram-negative (GP/GN) ratio, Gram-negative stress (GNStr) ratio and predator/prey ratio along with AMF spore density and the total HM content (Cu, Cr, Cd, Mn, Zn, and Ni) were assessed.
The results showed that all of the PLFA microbial biomarkers and the F/B ratio were positively correlated, while HMs and microbial stress markers were negatively correlated. The significant correlation of AMF biomass with all microbial groups, the F/B ratio, and T. PLFA confirmed its significance as a key predictor of microbial biomass. With AMF and T. PLFA, Cd and Cr had a weak or negative connection. Among the toxic HMs, Zn and Cd had the greatest impact on microbial populations. Vegetation did not have any significant effect on soil microbial communities. This research will aid in the development of bioinoculants for the bioremediation of MSW-polluted sites and will improve our understanding of the soil microbial community's ability to resist, recover, and adapt to toxic waste contamination.
15. Diagnosis of photochemical O3 production of urban plumes in summer via developing the real-field IRs of VOCs: A case study in Beijing of China
Environmental Pollution, Volume 318, 1 February 2023, 120836
This study mainly developed an estimate method for photochemical ozone (O3) production from urban plumes in hot season, through simulating O3 evolution from precursors locally emitted and determining the real-field O3 increment reactivity (IR) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on the box chemical model. Our simulation on June-2019 indicated that Beijing local emissions produced O3 at the rate of 0.7–9.2 ppb/h and led to an O3 increase of 48.9 ppb during 05:00–18:00, accounting for 68.3% of the observed O3 increase. The maximum level and production rate of simulated O3 showed a linear response to VOCs, therefore we can use VOCs levels in urban plumes to quantify O3 formation in summer. The IR (g O3 formed per g VOCs) was calculated on the actual precursor and meteorology condition of this megacity, 0.12–4.90 g/g for individual VOCs and 1.49 g/g for comprehensive TVOCs. The weighted average of individual IRs agreed well with that of TVOCs, but these IRs were 34.5% of MIR values that were widely used in references. It's noteworthy that these IRs had greater sensitivity to precursor levels, and broadly remained stable under the fixed VOCs:NOx.
Considering the synchronous reductions of precursors in Beijing, we applied these IRs to quantify chemical O3 evolution from Beijing local emissions in summer of recent years, declining from 63.5 ppb in 2016 to 44.0 ppb in 2020 for June. The contributions of the diagnosed chemical O3 to Beijing O3 better matched with the atmospheric transport paths on daily basis, higher than 100% when the transport paths starting from the clean neighbor cities, but lower to 45%–66% when the transport paths originating from the highly-polluted neighbor cities. This consistence indicated the reliability of our IR calculation method for quickly estimating chemical O3 production of urban plumes in summer.
16. Investigation on dioxins emission characteristic during complete maintenance operating period of municipal solid waste incineration
Environmental Pollution, Volume 318, 1 February 2023, 120949
The dioxins (DXN) are a set of pollutants encompass polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F), their emissions from municipal waste incineration processes (MSWI) are normally detected under steady operating conditions. However, limited studies have focused on the PCDD/F emission characteristics under a complete maintenance operating period (CMOP), which includes shut-down, cooling, maintenance, heating, startup, and normal operations. In this article, the shutdown process (SDP) starts from the normal operation, followed by shutdown, and then cooling; while the startup process (SUP) commences from heating, followed by startup, and then normal operation. The detection and analysis were conducted at the SDP and SUP stages.
The PCDD/F mass and total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) concentrations were measured in the flue gas and bag filter fly ash (BF-FA) during a CMOP of Beijing MSWI plant. The highest PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gas were found in the "cooling” and "startup” phases; in the FA, this condition occurred in the "startup” phase. Further, the results show that the most heightened concentrations were observed for 5–6 chlorinated PCDF and 4–5 chlorinated PCDD among the 17 PCDD/F congeners in most cases. More importantly, the air pollution control devices (APCDs) which include activated carbon, lime, and BF, have high removal efficiency for PCDD/F (especially PCDD) during the "startup” phase. APCDs also easily release a considerable amount of PCDD/F because of the memory effect, which emits more PCDD/F at the "shutdown” phase than at the "startup” one. Besides, the annual PCDD/F emission in the flue gas of the MSWI plant was estimated to be 67.72 mg I-TEQ, of which the emission accounts for approx. 20% during the CMOP. Moreover, the experiment shows that the PCDD/F emissions of the MSWI plant in Beijing under unsteady conditions are more miniature than those reported earlier in other areas.
17. The Environmental Life Cycle Costs (ELCC) of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) as an input for sustainable urban mobility
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 389, 20 February 2023, 136009
The growth of shared mobility has recently challenged the way mobility has traditionally been conceived. In this perspective, this study investigates the Environmental Life Cycle Costs of Urban Air Mobility (UAM) services to evaluate their potential integration with other transport systems, in the three-time horizons (2025, 2030, 2035). The key area of research was focused on the determination of the cost components of UAM required to calculate the unit costs of UAM transportation.
To this end, unitary data and the method from a 2017 EC DG MOVE's report on urban accessibility have been adopted. The analysis confirms that most of the cost is related to the aircraft energy consumption during flight, while the rest is used by ground infrastructure. Moreover, the energy cost is strongly correlated with the distance travelled and the size of the aircraft. The longer the flight and the bigger the aircraft, the higher is the energy cost. Complex cost analysis should be able to support decision-makers in the definition of Sustainable Urban Mobility and their principles of integration, participation, monitoring and evaluation. However, it will be necessary to be able to draw on more consolidated and widespread data over time for the creation of Urban plans for Sustainable Mobility.
MÔI TRƯỜNG KHU CÔNG NGHIỆP
1. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds and secondary organic aerosol pollution in different functional areas of petrochemical industrial cities in Northwest China
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 858, Part 3, 1 February 2023, 159903
The aim of this study was to better understand the characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) pollution in different functional areas of petrochemical industrial cities. In Lanzhou, a typical petrochemical industrial city in Northwest China, with the use of an Integrated Atmospheric Mobile Monitoring Vehicle (IAMMV), various real-time online monitoring instruments, including a VOC monitoring instrument (TH-300B) and single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), were used in combination.
These instruments were employed to determine PM2.5, VOCs and other factors at monitoring sites in Xigu (XG) and Chengguan (CG) districts in September 2020 and 2021, respectively. The results revealed that during the monitoring period, the average VOC concentrations at the XG and CG monitoring sites were 102.3 and 35.8 ppb, respectively. Benzene (45.58 %) and toluene (24.47 %) significantly contributed to the SOA formation potential at the XG site. M/P-xylene (27.88 %) and toluene (23.64 %) more notably contributed to the SOA formation potential at the CG site.
The PM2.5 mass concentration at the XG site (24.1 μg·m−3) was similar to that at the CG site (21.2 μg·m−3), but the proportion of particulate matter components greatly differed. The proportion of organic carbon (OC) at the XG site (19.00 %) was higher than that at the CG site (9.97 %). The number of particles containing C2H3O+ (m/z = 43) accounted for 36.96 % and 15.41 % of the total particles at the XG and CG sites, respectively. The mixing ratios of OC and hybrid carbon (OCEC) with C2H3O+ (m/z = 43) were 0.81 and 0.53, respectively, at the XG site and reached only 0.48 and 0.25, respectively, at the CG site. The secondary ageing degree of particles in XG district was high. These results could provide a reference for ambient air quality improvement and the formulation of governance measures in different functional areas of petrochemical industrial cities.
2. Development of evaporation technique for concentrating lead acid wastewater from the battery recycling plant, by nanocomposite ceramic substrates and solar/wind energy
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116980
Wastewater from car battery recycling plants contains lead ions. This acidic wastewater was treated by the solar steam generation method. In this research, a light porous ceramic substrate (PCS) was made based on clay, human hair, and nano-hydroxyapatite. The physical and chemical characteristics of this PCS were identified by SEM, XRD, FTIR, BET, and TGA. The high porosity in PCSs was created due to the removal of human hair in the calcination process inside the furnace.
Microchannels with capillarity and hydrophilicity of nano-hydroxyapatite quickly pump water molecules to the surface of PCSs. The wastewater treatment process was carried out on two laboratory and semi-industrial scales. The temperature of the surface of the PCSs reached 70 in less than 60 min with the radiant heat transfer mechanism, and the water molecules were evaporated with an evaporation rate and thermal conversion efficiency were 9.22 and 90%, respectively. The wind blew the vapor away from the system and the rate of evaporation increased. PCSs had the ability to regenerate after several consecutive cycles.
3. Performance evaluation and life cycle assessment of electrocoagulation process for manganese removal from wastewater using titanium electrodes
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116967
Excess manganese (Mn) concentrations can pose environmental and health risks. Currently, research on Mn removal by electrocoagulation (EC) using transition metal electrodes and the determination of its potential environmental impacts is limited. This study aims to assess the electrocoagulation process's performance with a titanium electrode as a sacrificial anode while also performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the process. The initial pH, current density (CD), electrode spacings, electrolyte types, concentrations, and electrode arrangement were all examined. For synthetic wastewater, most of the experiments used a concentration of Mn of 2 mg/L and sodium chloride as a supporting electrolyte at a concentration of 1 g/L.
LCA software (OpenLCA 1.11) was used to assess the potential environmental impacts. Optimal operating conditions within the experimental range were as follows: initial pH = 7, CD = 10 mA/cm2, gap distance = 2 cm, and 1 g/L NaCl. Under these conditions, the maximum Mn removal efficiency was 96.5% after 60 min. There was an improvement of 2% rise after 60 min when the temperature increased from 20 °C to 40 °C. For real wastewater, the highest removal efficiencies for Mn and chemical oxygen demand after 60 min were 91.3% and 92%, respectively.
The pseudo second order model provides the highest coefficient of determination for expressing the experimental data. Global warming, human non-carcinogenic toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity were the most important categories of impact examined in this work according to the LCA (0.00064 kg CO2 eq, 0.00018 kg 1,4-DCB, and 0.00028 kg 1,4-DCB, respectively). To effectively remove Mn using EC with Ti electrodes, it appears that a period of electrolysis of 10 min would be sufficient under most of the conditions investigated in this study. The reduction in the electrolysis time will lead to a reduction in the operating costs of the system.
4. Experimental investigation on electromagnetic induction thermal desorption for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 117200
A novel electromagnetic induction low temperature thermal desorption treatment (EMI LTTD) for petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil was introduced in this work. The removal rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) under various factors, the morphology changes of soils as well as removal mechanism were investigated. Results suggested that increasing the heating temperature significantly increased the removal rate of TPH. At the beginning of 20 min, most of hydrocarbons (93.44–96.91 wt%) was removed with the temperature ranged from 200 °C to 300 °C. Besides, the initial contaminants concentration, particle size and thickness of soil slightly influenced the removal rate of TPH. Desorption kinetic study demonstrated that first-order model was well-described for desorption behavior. Response surface methodology analysis showed the temperature of 216 °C, the residence time of 21 min and the moisture content of 18% was an optimum condition recommended for potentially practical application. Under this condition, the results for the composition of hydrocarbons based on carbon number fractions indicated that the fractions of C10∼C16, C17∼C22 still existed in soil, while C23∼C28 was not detected after EMI LTTD treatment. Proposed mechanism was both hydrocarbons removed by evaporation at any temperature, while parts of heavy hydrocarbons was cracked within the soil close to induction medium, resulting in re-adsorption of light hydrocarbons. A buckwheat germination and growth test indicated that soil treated by EMI LTTD was potential in reutilization for planting.
5. On the transition of major pollutant and O3 production regime during Covid-19 lockdowns
Journal of Environmental Management, Volume 328, 15 February 2023, 116907
Lockdowns enforced amid the pandemic facilitated the evaluation of the impact of emission reductions on air quality and the production regime of O3 under NOx reduction. Analysis of space-time variation of various pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NOx, CO, O3 and VOC or TNMHC) through the lockdown phases at eight typical stations (Urban/Metro, Rural/high vegetation and coastal) is carried out. It reveals how the major pollutant (PM10 or PM2.5 or O3, or CO) differs from station to station as lockdowns progress depending on geography, land-use pattern and efficacy of lockdown implementation. Among the stations analyzed, Delhi (Chandnichowk), the most polluted (PM10 = 203 μgm−3; O3 = 17.4 ppbv) in pre-lockdown, experienced maximum reduction during the first phase of lockdown in PM2.5 (−47%), NO2 (−40%), CO (−37%) while O3 remained almost the same (2% reduction) to pre-lockdown levels.
The least polluted Mahabaleshwar (PM10 = 45 μgm−3; O3 = 54 ppbv) witnessed relatively less reduction in PM2.5 (−2.9%), NO2 (−4.7%), CO (−49%) while O3 increased by 36% to pre-lockdown levels. In rural stations with lots of greenery, O3 is the major pollutant attributed to biogenic VOC emissions from vegetation besides lower NO levels. In other stations, PM2.5 or PM10 is the primary pollutant. At Chennai, Jabalpur, Mahabaleshwar and Goa, the deciding factor of Air Quality Index (AQI) remained unchanged, with reduced values. Particulate matter, PM10 decided AQI for three stations (dust as control component), and PM2.5 decided the same for two but within acceptable limits for stations. Improvement of AQI through control of dust would prove beneficial for Chennai and Patiala; anthropogenic emission control would work for Chandani chowk, Goa and Patiala; emission control of CO is required for Mahabaleshwar and Thiruvanathapuram. Under low VOC/NOx ratio conditions, O3 varies with the ratio, NO/NO2, with a negative (positive) slope indicating VOC-sensitive (NOx-sensitive) regime. Peak O3 isopleths as a function of NOx and VOC depicting distinct patterns suggest that O3 variation is entirely non-linear for a given NOx or VOC.
6. New outlook on hazardous pollutants in the wastewater environment: Occurrence, risk assessment and elimination by electrodeionization technologies
Environmental Research, Volume 219, 15 February 2023, 115112
Over the decades, water contamination has increased substantially and has become a severe global issue. Degradation of natural resources is taking place at an alarming rate as a result of the use of chemicals like dyes, heavy metals, fertilizers, pesticides, and many more, necessitating the development of long-term pollution remediation methods/technologies. As a new development in the field of environmental engineering, electrodeionization incorporates both traditional ion exchange and electrodialysis.
This communication provides an overview of hazardous contaminants such as dyes, heavy metals, fertilizers, and pesticides, as well as their converted forms, which are present in water. It highlights the risks of water pollutants to public health and the environment. Various electrochemical methods with a focus on electrodeionization for the treatment of wastewater and removal of hazardous contaminants are outlined in this review. Additionally, this review discusses the challenges and the future outlook for the development in this field of research.
7. Paradigm shift towards the sustainability in upstream oil industry for enhanced recovery - A state-of-art review
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 386, 1 February 2023, 135784
Sustainability refers to achieving our goals without compromising the capacity of coming generations to accomplish their aims. Sustainability is a multifaceted approach considering ecological, social, and economic factors. Adopting sustainable practices, whether large or small, can have a significant long-term impact. Therefore, a detailed study of sustainability in the upstream Oil and Gas (O & G) industry is presented. In this review, a contemporary explanation of the enhanced oil recovery methods and their evolution over the years in terms of chemicals and mechanisms has been discussed. The application of nano-sized particles for better recovery has been introduced in hydrocarbon recovery. The nanoparticles, the involvement of polymeric surfactants, Pickering emulsions, and ionic liquids show effectiveness in oil recovery.
This review encounters the applicability of various chemical enhanced recovery methods. Moreover, the synergistic impacts of the above-mentioned chemicals with standard methods, their efficiency, and their evolution in the petroleum industry have also been investigated thoroughly. The era of enhanced recovery begins with the involvement of surfactants, followed by alkali, polymers, combinations of both, and microemulsions.
Then, nanotechnology came into the picture followed by Pickering emulsions. The journey is still continuing in search of sustainable recovery methods for a better tomorrow. Recently, ionic liquids have also been involved in oil recovery methods. Current research works show the potentiality of ionic liquids in the hydrocarbon industry as a green solvent. Overall, this review gives a clear-cut insight regarding the chemicals involved in recovery as well as the paradigm shift happening in the hydrocarbon industry for sustainability.
CO2 injection with geological storage has also been discussed and this method could help to achieve a target of net-zero emission. A substantial discussion regarding the applications of chemical enhanced oil recovery and CO2 injection procedures for sustainable production of energy is presented to show the paradigm shift in enhanced oil recovery methods. This paper reviews the previous works done by the researchers on various enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods and tries to meticulously add the new developments that caused the switch from conventional materials to bio-based materials as well as the carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) strategies.
The major objective of this study is to provide insight into various advancements in the upstream O & G Industry for EOR and also helps in understanding the significance of bio-based additives, microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR), and the CCUS for achieving more environmentally friendly and cost-effective operations.
The state-of-art review will provide a complete and detailed comprehensive analysis of EOR methods as well as the shift toward sustainability. This paper is beneficial as it delivers insights into the mechanism of various new synthetics in the EOR application. Also, it offers commendations and guiding principles for future advances in sustainable methods.
8. The failure of collaborative agglomeration: From the perspective of industrial pollution emission
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 387, 10 February 2023, 135952
The green transformation of economic growth mode is one of the keys to promote high-quality development. This paper starts with the collaborative agglomeration of manufacturing and producer services, demonstrates the impact of collaborative agglomeration on industrial pollution emission through theoretical analysis, and then uses panel data of 285 prefecture level cities in China from 2004 to 2019 to verify the relationship between them.
The results show that collaborative agglomeration significantly increased industrial pollution emission, but the effect mainly existed in small and medium-sized cities, cities with more development zones, cities with provincial high-tech industrial parks and the observation range from 2009 to 2015. The results of subdividing producer services show that transportation, warehousing and postal services, finance, information transmission, computer services and software industries have intensified industrial pollution emission in the collaborative agglomeration with the manufacturing industry.
Mechanism analysis shows that collaborative agglomeration fosters the city's "low-level innovation preference” and promotes the expansion of the number of enterprises characterized by the entry and extension of the duration of highly polluting enterprises. It objectively forms a "quantity-priority orientation”, thus increasing industrial pollution emission. The above conclusions mean that the development of urban industry at this stage should be based on quality and efficiency, rather than pursuing the disordered expansion of quantity. This paper provides beneficial policy implications for reducing local governments' blind behavior and awakening the awareness of environment-friendly economic growth.
9. Understanding the link between industrial stimulation effect and environmental impact of sponge city: With a focus on the construction phase
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 389, 20 February 2023, 136113
‘Sponge City’ has been widely accepted as a green transformation direction of China's urbanization. Such a mid-to long-term construction strategy will bring about prominent economic stimulation effects and complicated environmental impacts, whereas the research is far from sufficiency. This study developed a methodology based on the Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment to quantify the impact of the entire supply chains and relevant pollution processes, by disaggregating nine Sponge City construction sub-sectors from the construction sector in Input-Output table and parameterizing a specific environmental matrix focusing on water and air pollutants and CO2 emission.
Taken the Sponge City pilot area of Pingxiang City as a case, the evaluation of direct and overall industrial stimulation effects and embodied pollutant discharges, as well as analysis of the implicit connections, were carried out. It is found that the total inputs stimulated by Sponge City construction could reach 4.4 times of the direct input, while pollution involved by the supply chains amounts to 3%∼6% of total emission of the pilot city. The primary industry providing direct input and the service industries as indirect supporters became the main sources of water pollution.
Although the inputs from the secondary industry brought about a more remarkable industrial stimulation effect, direct and indirect inputs from non-metallic mineral products, indirect inputs from metal products and the electricity industry led to noteworthy air pollution problems and global warming potential. The outcomes help promote more holistic understanding of the Sponge City construction as an emerging industry and facilitate comprehensive decisions for the sake of sustainable urban development.
10. A sustainable three-layer circular economic model with controllable waste, emission, and wastewater from the textile and fashion industry
Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 388, 15 February 2023, 135642
The textile and clothing industries play a major role in greenhouse gas release, climate change, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, and soil damage due to the landfilling of clothes. Due to fast fashion evolution and the unnecessary lifestyles of humans, each year more than of garment waste are produced. Only 14% of it is recycled, and the remaining is dumped on land. Addressing this big problem is urgently needed to protect the environment and reduce the massive non-renewable resource consumption rate. In this paper, a sustainable circular three-layer supply chain model consisting of a single supplier-manufacturer and multiple retailers is developed for the textile and clothing industries.
Water purification technology, green technology, and carbon emission reduction concepts are introduced at the supplier stage, and zero waste techniques for the valorisation of pre-consumer textile waste, green technology, and carbon emission reduction concepts are implemented at the manufacturing stage to create sustainability in the textile and clothing industries.
The profit of an integrated model is calculated, and the profit of the supplier, manufacturer, and retailer models is calculated separately by using the optimal solution finding algorithms in Mathematica 9.0. The concavity test of the total profit function is proved by using the Hessian matrix. The numerical examples, managerial implications, and sensitivity analysis are presented for the textile and clothing industries.
The profit comparison results show that the integrated model profited by around 2% more than the sum of separate profits. This study found that investing in green technologies, waste minimization, and wastewater treatment technologies resulted in a decrease in related costs and environmental damage as well as increased profit.
11. Integrated development of digital and energy industries: Paving the way for carbon emission reduction
Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 187, February 2023, 122236
The fusion of digital and energy industries is an efficacious route to advance the high-quality development of the energy system and ensure energy security. This study explored the fusion mechanism of digital and energy industries and built an evaluation index system for the fusion of digital and energy industries from four dimensions: fusion basis, fusion conditions, fusion application, and fusion performance.
Next, the fusion level of digital and energy industries and their performance in different dimensions in China and various regions were calculated using the global principal component analysis. Subsequently, the panel data model was used to quantitatively study the influence factors of the integrated development of China's digital and energy industries. The study revealed that the fusion level of China's digital and energy industries has continuously improved from 2002 to 2018, but the gap between different regions in 2017 was still large. The integrated development of digital and energy industries is positively correlated with the development level of digital and energy industries, scientific and technological innovation, environmental regulation, and urbanization.
12. Circular economy potential of sustainable aggregates for the Malaysian construction industry
Sustainable Cities and Society, Volume 89, February 2023, 104332
To promote environmentally resilient development of cities and their infrastructure, government policies and business models are shifting towards sustainable practices especially through implementation of circular economy (CE) principles. Within the construction industry, successful transition to CE should be supported by holistic and comprehensive evaluation of building materials and their sustainable alternatives. This study evaluates the regional environmental impacts of construction materials, specifically aggregates for concrete production in urban areas.
The Malaysian construction industry was taken as an example for this purpose. Comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out on 3 concrete types each containing a different aggregate: natural aggregate (NA); recycled aggregate (RA); and palm oil clinker (POC). Route analysis determined the transportation impacts of materials from their respective origins to the city centres of 5 main Malaysian cities. Results showed that KL was the city with the highest potential for use of sustainable aggregates as it had the lowest transport distances for all materials. Based on these findings, this study proposes recommendations to encourage CE implementation in the local construction industry and their applicability to different cities in Malaysia.
13. Ozone application in different industries: A review of recent developments
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 454, Part 2, 15 February 2023, 140188
Ozone – a powerful antimicrobial agent, has been extensively applied for decontamination purposes in several industries (including food, water treatment, pharmaceuticals, textiles, healthcare, and the medical sectors). The advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to recent developments in the deployment of different ozone-based technologies for the decontamination of surfaces, materials and indoor environments. The pandemic has also highlighted the therapeutic potential of ozone for the treatment of COVID-19 patients, with astonishing results observed.
The key objective of this review is to summarize recent advances in the utilisation of ozone for decontamination applications in the above-listed industries while emphasising the impact of key parameters affecting microbial reduction efficiency and ozone stability for prolonged action. We realise that aqueous ozonation has received higher research attention, compared to the gaseous application of ozone.
This can be attributed to the fact that water treatment represents one of its earliest applications. Furthermore, the application of gaseous ozone for personal protective equipment (PPE) and medical device disinfection has not received a significant number of contributions compared to other applications. This presents a challenge for which the correct application of ozonation can mitigate. In this review, a critical discussion of these challenges is presented, as well as key knowledge gaps and open research problems/opportunities.
14. Role and impact of wash columns on the performance of chemical absorption-based CO2 capture process for blast furnace gas in iron and steel industries
Energy, Available online 21 February 2023, 127020
Owing to strict environmental regulations for amine vapor emissions (generally around 1 ppmv) and demands for energy consumption reduction, wash sections in large-scale CO2 capture processes (CCPs) are receiving increasing attention. This study presents a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of a commercial-scale monoethanolamine (MEA)-based CCP containing two wash columns for the absorber and stripper for blast furnace gas (BFG) in iron and steel industries. The absorber wash column contributed slightly to improving the capture rate but did not affect the regeneration heat consumption. The contribution of the absorber wash column to the capture cost under the optimal operating condition was up to 5.4%.
Furthermore, the stripper wash column improved energy efficiency of the reboiler and condenser via self-heat recuperation by approximately 1.25% and 4.44% on average, respectively. This played a critical role in enhancing the energy efficiency by recovering the partial vaporization heat of water. The maximum energy efficiency was achieved with the stripper operated under the same lean loading, indicating that the optimal lean loading for regeneration heat is the inherent thermodynamic property of the CO2/aqueous MEA system. Finally, the dimensions of absorber, stripper and wash columns were determined under the minimum capture cost for reliable and reasonable consideration.
15. Computational fluid dynamics modelling approaches of gas explosion in the chemical process industry: A review
Process Safety and Environmental Protection, Volume 170, February 2023, Pages 112-138
Previous studies have revealed that major accidents in Chemical Process Industry (CPI) are most commonly due to explosions. Thus, analytical studies of explosion-related risk assessments are performed to predict the consequences of potential explosions. As physical experiments on explosions are very expensive, modelling and simulation techniques using theoretical models are becoming increasingly popular, allowing researchers to replicate the potential explosion scenarios. In this regard, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are more than appropriate.
Although CFD simulations are widely applied, they have several weaknesses such as high computational costs as well as potential simulation inaccuracies due to inaccurate modelling steps. The weaknesses can be overcome with appropriate techniques such as model simplification, defining the appropriate method, grid design and boundary conditions.
Many studies have reported different aspects and perspectives of explosion modelling and simulation techniques, but few evaluate the techniques across every different type of explosion. This subject is critical, as modelling steps and techniques directly affect the accuracy of simulation results. Hence, a review of the assumptions and simulation techniques that are used to reduce the computational costs associated with gas explosion modelling for each of the different explosion types is presented.
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